Microsoft word - 1980.276
Bramford to Twinstead Tee Connection Project
Notes to accompany Biodiversity baseline information
The biodiversity information consists of two sets of plans. The first set of plans (G1980.297d – 302d) illustrates the findings of the habitat survey work undertaken by TEP along the preferred route corridor. This survey has been carried out using a combination of access to land (where this has been granted and is necessary) and views from roads and public rights of way. An asterisk symbol (*) shows where close access to habitats has not been possible but where there may be features such as plants or mixes of habitats of further interest. Some woodland and grassland habitats require survey during specific seasons when characteristic plants are in flower, to allow a finer level of habitat classification to be made. Other habitats may have potential to support protected species and more detailed survey would be recommended to confirm species that may be present and this has been recorded. Where more detailed survey will be undertaken, a precautionary approach has been adopted. This means that until otherwise determined, a habitat will be assumed to have the highest likely conservation value and protected species will be presumed present. The second set of plans (G1980.287d, G1980.290d - 294d, G1980.539a and G1980.593a) presents species records and designated wildlife sites within the corridor and wider area. The information has been gathered from a range of sources as shown on each plan. These records include data from members of the public and landowners or tenants. Citation extracts for designated sites that fall within the Route Corridor are provided below. The application for the new connection will include an Environmental Impact Assessment that will set out the impacts on biodiversity anticipated from the detailed connection design. The baseline information presented in this document and any additional surveys undertaken will form the foundation for that impact assessment.
Information on Designated Wildlife Sites (to accompany plans G1980.287d and
Hintlesham Woods - Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI)
This site combines two former SSSIs, Hintlesham Woods SSSI and Wolves Wood, Aldham SSSI.
Wolves Wood is an RSPB reserve. This is a key site in the Nature Conservation Review (Ratcliffe
These woods are one of the largest remaining areas of ancient coppice-with-standards woodland in
Suffolk. Historical and archaeological evidence show the woods to have been in existence at least
since the 12th century. Ramsey Wood is an intact ancient wood, linked to Hintlesham Wood by
secondary woodland established between the 16th and 19th centuries. Other secondary extensions
occurred during this time including Keebles Grove.
The woods lie on a boulder clay plateau overlain in places by glacial sands and drift. They contain a
range of tree communities reflecting the variation in soil type and drainage. Acid pedunculate oak-
hazel-ash woodland occurs extensively on light boulder clay, grading into wet ash-maple woodland
on heavier, slightly calcareous soils. There are in addition, examples of pedunculate oak-hornbeam
and maple-ashlime woodland with various types of elm woodland, both invasive and local in origin.
Secondary woodland consists chiefly of sycamore and sweet chestnut with some spruce, and trees
that have spread from primary woodland. Keebles Grove in marked contrast, consists of wet ash-
Mature standard trees are predominantly of oak with some ash and birch. The birch tends to be
rather short-lived and is present mainly as maiden poles which have grown up since coppicing
ceased about 70 years ago. Large wild cherry, hornbeam and small-leaved lime trees are unusually
frequent in these woods and in wetter areas, field maple, aspen, sallow Salix caprea and alder are
common. The coppice layer consists mainly of ash, silver birch and hazel with areas of field maple,
hornbeam, small-leaved lime, elm and oak. Beneath, are a variety of shrubs which are particularly
abundant on heavy boulder clay soils) amongst the more notable species are Wild Crab Apple Malus
sylvestris, Spindle Euonymus europaeus, Buckthorn Rhamnus catharticus, Alder Buckthorn Frangula
alnus, Midland Hawthorn Crataegus laevigata and the uncommon Wild Service Tree Sorbus
The ground flora is dominated by bramble with patches of Dog's Mercury Mercurialis perennis,
Bluebell Hyacinthoides non-scripta and Bracken Pteridium aquilinum. Other plants occurring
frequently throughout the woods include Enchanter's Nightshade Circaea lutetiana, Primrose
Primula vulgaris, Wood Sorrel Oxalis acetosella and Wood Anemone Anemone nemorosa.
There is a large colony of Green Helleborine Helleborus viridus in Hintlesham Woods and other
notable species include the fern Polypodium australe, Violet Helleborine Epipactis purpurata, Bird's-
nest Orchid Neottia nidus-avis Wood Spurge Euphorbia amygdaloides and Herb Paris Paris
Many of the rides are densely shaded and overgrown by Bramble. In wet areas, particularly where
light penetrates, are a number of characteristic wet woodland species including Meadowsweet
Filipendula ulmaria, Pendulous Sedge Carex pendula, Bittersweet Solanum dulcamara and Brooklime
A variety of birds breed in these woods, encouraged by the recent resumption of coppicing in
Wolves Wood. Species include Woodcock, Nightingale, Tawny Owl, Nuthatch and Whitethroat.
Fore and Bushey Groves - County Wildlife Site
It is considered that Fore and Bushey Groves, which are now two small woods separated by a track
and an area of dense scrub, were at one time joined together to form one larger woodland. The
large proportion of the woods has a uniform structure consisting of field maple and hazel coppice
with ash standards. However the southern half of Bushey Grove is occupied by a plantation of
sycamore which is regenerating freely. In addition, approximately 10% of this area has been planted
with Scots pine. A notable feature of Fore Grove is the wild service-tree, a rare species both
nationally and regionally, which is restricted to ancient woodlands. The ground flora of both woods
is very similar. Dog's mercury is dominant throughout and interspersed with patches of early-purple
orchid and primrose. Evidence of woodpecker activity in dead standing trees is found throughout the
wood. In addition, sparrowhawk was noted at the time of survey, although it is not known whether
the species nested or not. Recent management of the wood has included the planting of snowberry
for game cover and the clearing and removal of diseased elm.
Round Wood and Elms Grove - County Wildlife Site
Round Wood is one of a number of ancient woodlands in the parish of Bramford which are listed in
English Nature's Ancient Woodland Inventory. A bank and ditch considered to be medieval in origin
marks the northern and part of the western boundary of the wood. In addition to the bank and
ditch, a hedge is also present along the southern and eastern margins. The dominant tree species in
the wood are oak and ash with frequent hazel coppice and hawthorn. A good diversity of uncommon
herbaceous and woody species can be found in the shrub and ground layers including Midland
hawthorn, guelder rose, crab apple, spindle, early-purple orchid, wood anemone, early dog-violet,
sanicle and stinking iris. A number of plants on the species list are indicators of ancient woodland.
Furthermore, a wide range of woodland birds particularly warblers were recorded, when the wood
was surveyed in 1986. Recent management work includes the re-coppicing possibly about twenty
five years ago of a small section in the north-east. In addition some woodland under the electricity
This is an extensive patchwork of grassland fields, alder carr, dense scrub and hedgerows along the
Some of the wet grassland fields contain springs emerging from where Red Crag meets impermeable
London Clay on the valley side. This gives rise to calcareous seepage zones in the fields and flowing
freshwater ditches to the brook. The springs also feed a number of ponds on the site. This junction
between Red Crag and London Clay is of limited extent in the country and is particularly
characteristic of the shallow river valleys of the southern Suffolk Sandlings.
The ditches and ponds are important for water vole and water shrew (Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP)
species) and associated wetland wildlife including amphibians and dragonflies.
Although semi-improved, the wet grassland retains a number of species of interest and indicative of
impeded drainage including ragged robin, cuckoo flower and a large stand of brown sedge. The
rough structure of much of the grassland makes ideal habitat for small mammals and therefore good
hunting habitat for the Barn Owl (BAP). Badgers (a protected species) are also known to occur on
site and use the grassland for hunting. The mosaic of grassland and hedges is also ideal feeding
Alder Carr is a BAP habitat (Wet Woodland) and known to be of great importance for invertebrates.
Otter (BAP) has been seen on the Belstead Brook and the woodland provides ideal lying up habitat for this species, as well as overhanging perches for Kingfisher hunting along the river. The site includes a network of native hedgerows and a number of veteran trees. In combination with the other habitat on site, these hedges are ideal habitat for a wide range of birds. This is reflected in
the species recorded for the site, which includes several farmland bird BAP species: yellow hammer, linnet, bullfinch, starling, house sparrow, reed bunting, song thrush and turtle dove. Drier grassland to the north of the site supports a good population of bee orchids including a number of the white form of this species. Also of note is the grass vetchling found in this field. This species is more usually associated with coastal situations and is rarely found inland. Tom's / Broadoak Wood - County Wildlife Site
Tom's and Broadoak Woods are listed in English Nature's Inventory of Ancient Woodland. They are set amidst arable land close to the large ancient woodland known as Raydon Great Wood. A large proportion of both woods has been planted with conifers. Due to the dense shade cast by the tree canopy the shrub and ground floor layers are largely absent. Some deciduous trees, mainly oak, ash and cherry still remain around the edge of the woods. Where there is sufficient light a shrub layer of hawthorn, hazel, spindle and field maple is present. On the woodland margins remnants of a typical woodland flora can be found for example greater stitchwort, primrose and wood sedge. Tom's and Broadoak Woods are used for shooting and for timber production. Valley Farm Meadow - County Wildlife Site
This County Wildlife Site is situated adjacent and to the north of Hadleigh Railway Walk, to the south east of Hadleigh. A stream flows along the western boundary of the site. The low-lying land which lies adjacent to the stream does not appear to have been treated with agricultural chemicals and remains waterlogged all year. Consequently it supports a wide range of wet-loving species, for example ragged-robin, water mint and marsh-marigold. Of particular botanical value is a thriving population of bistort; a rare plant in Suffolk. The remainder of the site, away from the stream is drier and therefore supports a different flora. Cowslip, sorrel and field wood-rush are commonly found in this plant community. The species diversity of this meadow is maintained by cattle grazing. Herb-rich meadows are scarce and declining throughout the county and also nationally. This meadow is therefore of high conservation value.
Hadleigh Railway Walk - County Wildlife Site and Local Nature Reserve
Hadleigh Railway Walk is approximately two miles of former railway line which has been converted into a footpath and bridleway. It stretches from the outskirts of Hadleigh to the old railway station in Woodlands Road. Hadleigh Railway Walk was designated by English Nature (formerly Nature Conservancy Council) as a Site of Special Scientific Interest. However, due to the reversion of grassland habitat to scrub, the railway line has lost some of its conservation value and it was therefore decided not to renotify the site in 1981. In order to protect it, Babergh District Council designated it a Local Nature Reserve in 1987. A number of different types of habitat can be seen along itslength varying from chalk grassland to deciduous woodland. It is well known for the wide range of both flowering plants and invertebrates which have been recorded here. Of particular conservation value are the open, chalky banks of a cutting which is present in the middle section of the line. The flora here is typical of this plant community with pyramidal orchid, quaking- grass and restharrow frequently occurring. Further east, the line bisects a large area of ancient woodland, namely Raydon Great Wood. Remnants of ancient woodland flora can be seen in the form of oak, ash and hazel coppice with a herb-rich field layer including dog's mercury, wood sorrel and primrose. Part of this section has recently been recoppiced. The site has not been managed since the line was closed. Scrub is encroaching rapidly to the detriment of the grassland flora. In order to maintain the
conservation value of this site, invading woody plants should be removed and grassland areas cut annually. The River Brett - County Wildlife Site (sections outside the route corridor)
The River Brett flows from Thorpe Morieux through Chelsworth southwards to the west of Hadleigh and finally joins the River Stour at Higham. A large proportion of the River Brett has good water quality and is of conservation value. However 5 sections of watercourse have been selected as being of particular importance for aquatic wildlife. These sections support a highly diverse wetland flora. Emergent species which grow on the gently-shelving margins include flowering-rush, reedmace and greater pond sedge. Starwort, mare's-tail and river water-dropwort grow well in the unpolluted water. The latter species is a rare plant in need of special protection in the Anglian region (English Nature,1983). Study Area D
The northern section of Valley Farm Wood is listed in English Nature's Ancient Woodland Inventory. The remainder and the large proportion of the wood is considered to be more recent in origin. A public footpath linking Rands Farm with Hill Farm bisects the wood and is bordered by old mixed hedges comprising of spindle, maple, hawthorn, oak, elder, ash and dogwood. Valley Farm Wood consists of a number of different stand types. The oldest and driest part of the wood in the north-eastern corner consists of oak standards with gorse and hawthorn scrub underlain by a ground floor layer of bracken. To the east, the woodland is wetter and more open. Poplars which were at one time grown in this area, have recently been felled following storm damage. The southern half of the wood which consists of a large recently created lake, has been stocked with fish and is leased to Hadleigh fishing club. The lake has already been colonised by a variety of water plants including white water-lily, reedmace and pond sedge. The lake is bordered in the south by an area of mature ash and alder coppice with scattered crack willow and sallow and a dense understorey of giant horsetail and nettle. In addition to numerous woodland species which nest here, several aquatic birds are attracted to the lake. As the lake matures this number is likely to increase. Extended 1999 to incorporate hedges with dormice. Layham Grove - County Wildlife Site
Layham Grove is listed in the Suffolk Ancient Woodland Inventory compiled by English Nature. A large proportion of the wood is bordered by a woodbank and ditch, which is probably medieval in origin. The recent construction of a road has destroyed the southern edge of the wood which is now colonised by dense scrub. The wood consists of three main stand types. The northern and eastern compartments are colonised by small-leaved lime coppice, which has probably been neglected since the Second World War. Small-leaved lime is an uncommon tree species which is strongly associated with ancient woodland. The central part of the wood consists of elm coppice with some oak standards. The remainder in the western half has been felled and replanted with deciduous species, for example Norway maple, ash and oak. A number of small-leaved lime stools are regenerating well here. In addition, some planting has taken place in the north eastern corner of the wood. The floor of the woodland supports a plant community typical of an acid woodland. Wood sorrel, bluebell, heath speedwell and broom are commonly found throughout the wood. In the north-western corner is a deep pond. Spurge laurel, a scarce plant which is only found in old woodlands, occurs on the banks of the pond.
Layham Pit Woodland and Meadow - County Wildlife Site
Layham Pit is an active aggregrate pit with ongoing consent for extraction, infilling and restoration to agricultural land. There is no doubt that the entire pit is of wildlife value, supporting a range of habitats such as ruderal vegetation, bare ground, scrub and sand martin cliffs. By necessity much of this habitat is transitory and subject to rapid change as a part of ongoing operations. However, there is an area towards the centre of the pit that will remain undisturbed and is of particular wildlife value. Part of a former valley carrying a tributary to the river Brett has been 'cut off' by pit operations. It supports a mosaic of semi-natural woodland, scrub and spring-fed, unimproved wet grassland/fen meadow. The woodland includes a steep free-draining slope dominated by oak with a ground flora of native bluebell and areas of wet alder carr with seepage zones. Wet woodland is a Bidodiversity Action Plan (BAP) habitat. Buzzards have been observed in the woodland. The wet grassland is herb-rich and includes many species typical of this habitat such as ragged robin, fen bedstraw and greater bird's foot trefoil. Historically, it is likely that the wet grassland would have been cattle grazed. Whilst re-introduction of grazing/cutting may be desirable to prevent scrub encroachment, the extremely wet nature of the site means it is likely that the habitat will remain stable and the rate of change is slow. In addition, the current tall herb structure is of wildlife value in its own right. There is evidence of badgers feeding and it is important for a wide range of invertebrates, amphibians and reptiles including grass snake. Developing scrub around the edge of the wet grassland creates a graded edge that is ideal habitat for a range of birds including willow warblers, chiff chaff, black cap and nightingale. Millfield Wood - County Wildlife Site
Millfield Wood, which is listed in the Suffolk Ancient Woodland Inventory, has a varied and interesting history. A large proportion of the central section of woodland was cleared in the 1950's thereby dividing it into two smaller woods. In addition some clearance along the wood margins has taken place more recently. The remaining woodland is dominated by cherry with an understorey of hazel coppice. The cherries are of variable size ranging from saplings to large standards. In addition there is an area of wych elm coppice, part of which has been cleared due to the effects of Dutch elm disease. Holly frequently occurs in both the tree and shrub layers. Millfield Wood supports a high diversity of woodland species; a total of seventy nine flowering plants has been recorded. Bramble, nettle and bluebell are frequently occurring constituents of the field layer, together with smaller quantities of sanicle, dog's mercury and red campion. Scarce ancient woodland indicator plants which are also present include yellow archangel, wood millet and small-leaved lime. Included within the County Wildlife Site boundary is a small area of woodland separated from the large proportion of the wood by a green lane. Although this wood may not be medieval in origin, it is colonised by small-leaved lime and cherry, two uncommon woodland species and is therefore of high conservation value.
Broom Hill Wood is situated on gently-sloping land to the north west of the village of Polstead. It contains a diversity of trees and shrubs including ash, field maple, hazel coppice, oak and sycamore. A small waterlogged compartment (approximately 0.5 ha) has been planted with poplars, although many of these were uprooted in the storm of 1987. The structure of Broom Hill Wood is diverse and
there is a wide age range of trees from young saplings to mature standards. Although the majority of saplings are sycamores, there is also some signs of holly, ash and cherry regeneration. The ground flora is similarly varied. In areas where there is sufficient light, dog's-mercury, bluebell and primrose are abundant together with frequently occurring wood anemone, an ancient woodland indicator plant. A management plan to improve the conservation value of Broom Hill Wood was produced by the Dedham Vale Project in 1987. The wood is listed in English Nature's Inventory of Ancient Woodland for Suffolk. Bushy Park Wood - County Wildlife Site
Bushy Park Wood, situated on the northern valley slopes of the River Box, is a diverse ancient wood listed in English Nature's Inventory of Ancient Woodland. It retains a number of features indicative of medieval woods, for example a pronounced woodland bank along the western edge with a double bank along part of the southern boundary. An old coppice hedge with scattered large cherries along the top bank is an interesting historical feature. The original and central part of the wood consists of alder and ash with derelict hazel coppice in the understorey. To the north is a small area colonised by oak pollards with an understorey of holly. It is thought that this compartment was originally parkland. Old oak pollards are immensely valuable as a habitat for invertebrates, birds, bats and lichens. An unusual feature of this site are two streams which arise from two wet flushes and which flow north to south through the wood. In addition to many common woodland flowers, the ground flora also supports a number of ancient woodland indicators including yellow archangel, wood melick and wood millet. Management proposals to improve the wildlife value of the wood were written by the Suffolk Wildlife Trust in 1987. Management work carried out with the help of the Dedham Vale and Stour Valley Project team has included the clearing and replanting of two areas within Bushy Park Wood.
Assington Thicks an extensive ancient woodland is situated to the west of the village of Assington and north of Arger Fen Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI). Although part of the woodland has been cleared in the last one hundred years, Assington Thicks remains as one of the largest woods in west Suffolk and therefore an important feature in the landscape. A woodbank which is considered to be medieval in origin surrounds the wood. A large proportion of Assington Thicks has been densely planted with conifers to the detriment of the native flora and fauna. Semi-natural woodland is restricted to the south-western corner which consists of planted sweet chestnut with some hazel coppice stools. In these areas and along some of the wide rides which cross the wood, a varied ground flora is present. The rides are also attractive to many species of butterfly; a total of twenty species were recorded in 1978. A number of ponds, particularly those on the eastern margins of the wood, are also of wildlife value and provide important additional habitat for woodland invertebrates particularly dragonflies. Study Area G
Appletree Wood / Meadow - County Wildlife Site
Appletree Wood is situated south west of Great Cornard and close to a number of other ancient woods in the area for example Assington Thicks and Mumford's Wood. It is listed in English Nature's Inventory of Ancient Woodland. Appletree Wood is linked to Sawyers Farm in the west by a track, probably medieval in origin, which is lined with a species-rich and overgrown hedges. A reservoir
borders the eastern side of the wood. The semi-natural structure of Appletree Wood has been considerably altered by the extensive planting of non-native softwood trees. Native woodland is restricted to the southern section and the woodland margins. Hornbeam, ash and mature field maple coppice occur here, together with planted oaks and poplar. Large areas of woodland floor under the dense canopy are covered with moss. The remainder, where there is sufficient light, supports a diverse flora including a number of ancient woodland indicator plants, for example wood melick, wood anemone and Midland hawthorn. In addition to timber production, Appletree Wood is used extensively for shooting. To the west of Appletree Wood, is a species-rich meadow which was used at one time for wild flower seed production. The high diversity of flowering plants attracts good numbers of butterflies. At least sixteen species were recorded in the meadow when it was surveyed in 1996. The meadow is bordered along its northern edge by an ancient trackway which is fringed with large, old trees. Daws Hall - Local Wildlife Site
This mixed habitat site of grassland, marsh and a small lake is situated adjacent to the River Stour. A very rich and diverse flora is to be found within, including Large Bittercress (Cardamine amara), Viper's-bugloss (Echium vulgare), Ragged Robin (Lychnis flos-cuculi), Yellow-rattle (Rhinanthus minor), Common Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) and Vervain (Verbena officinalis). Selection criteria: HCr5, HCr10, SCr13 Loshes Meadow Complex - Local Wildlife Site
The majority of this site is a reserve managed by Essex Wildlife Trust, with only a small portion outside the reserve boundary. Bounded by Loshes Brook to the north, the reserve contains grassland, woodland, new plantation, hedgerows and a marsh. A narrow strip of woodland along the stream consists mainly of Alder (Alnus glutinosa) and Willows (Salix spp.) with Hornbeam (Carpinus betulus) and occasional Guelder Rose (Viburnum opulus). Beneath this a ground flora including Yellow Archangel (Lamiastrum galeobdolon), Moschatel (Adoxa moschatellina), Greater Tussock Sedge (Carex paniculata) and Ramsons (Allium ursinum) are found. The area known locally as the Hop Grounds, with Hop (Humulus lupulus) being abundant), includes an area of marshy meadow between coppice stools and includes Cuckooflower (Cardamine pratensis), Soft Rush (Juncus effusus) and Common Spotted Orchid (Dactylorhiza fuchsii). The non-reserve section of the site is wooded with Elms (Ulmus spp.) over abundant Bluebells (Hyacinthoides non-scripta). Selection criteria: HCr2(b), HCr2(c) Twinstead Marsh - Local Wildlife Site
This complex site supports a small stand of Alder (Alnus glutinosa), Willow (Salix sp.) carr, swamp, marsh and open water, which provides a rich variety of habitats for wildlife. Wet areas support Wild Angelica (Angelica sylvestris), Creeping Jenny (Lysimachia nemorum), Large Bittercress (Cardamine amara) and Cuckooflower (Cardamine pratensis) and Water Mint (Mentha aquatica). Nightingales and Willow Warblers have also been recorded. Selection criteria: HCr2(d), HCr5, SCr13 Ansell's Grove/Ash Ground - Local Wildlife Site
This valley wood has a canopy of Alder (Alnus glutinosa), Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and Willows (Salix spp.) along the wet valley bottom and Pedunculate Oak (Quercus robur) with Hazel (Corylus avellana), Blackthorn (Prunus spinosa) and Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) on the drier upper slopes. The marshy flora is of note for the abundance of Opposite-leaved Golden-saxifrage (Chrysosplenium oppositifolium), along with Moschatel (Adoxa moschatellina), Wood Anemone
(Anemone nemorosa), Lesser Pond Sedge (Carex acutiformis), Dog's Mercury (Mercurialis perennis), Marsh Marigold (Caltha palustris) and Meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria). Selection criteria: HCr2(b), HCr2(d) Alphamstone Meadows - Local Wildlife Site
This exceptionally rich site comprises wet meadows, dry slope grassland and sedge/rush marsh. These habitats support a rich flora amongst which Marsh Marigold (Caltha palustris), Common Spotted Orchid (Dactylorhiza fuchsii), Marsh Horsetail (Equisetum palustre), Ragged Robin (Lychnis flos-cuculi), Creeping Jenny (Lysimachia nummularia) and Bog Stitchwort (Stellaria alsine) are of particular interest as species typical of a rare and declining habitat. Selection criteria: HCr11, HCr23, SCr13 Moat Farm/Burnt House Marsh - Local Wildlife Site
This site is located either side of Moat lane. The western half bisected by an Alder (Alnus glutinosa)-lined stream, this site is predominantly planted Cricket Bat Willow (Salix alba var. caerulea) over areas of wet and dry grassland. Beneath this open canopy, is a marsh dominated by herb and ruderal species. Associated with this site are a number of interesting species including Opposite-leaved Golden-saxifrage (Chrysosplenium oppositifolium), Moschatel (Adoxa moschatellina), Narrow Buckler Fern (Dryopteris carthusiana), Ramsons (Allium ursinum), Marsh Marigold (Caltha palustris), Greater Bittercress (Cardamine amara) and Yellow Archangel (Lamiastrum galeobdolon). To the east of the road, the site displays similar habitats. Under a canopy of Cricket Bat Willow and Alder is a varied ground cover, which includes Moschatel, Ramsons (Allium ursinum), Marsh Marigold (Caltha palustris), Cuckooflower (Cardamine pratensis), Opposite-leaved Golden-saxifrage, Giant Horsetail (Equisetum telmateia) and Primrose (Primula vulgaris). Selection criteria: HCr1(b), HCr2(d) Alphamstone Complex - Local Wildlife Site
This site contains a very varied suite of habitats, ranging from dry grassland in an old gravel pit, scrub, wet Alder (Alnus glutinosa) woodland and swamp. The flora has a notable quantity of Alternate-leaved Golden-saxifrage (Chrysosplenium alternifolium), which is now rare in the county. Other species recorded include Marsh Marigold (Caltha palustris) and Opposite-leaved Golden-saxifrage (Chrysosplenium oppositifolium), along with Moschatel (Adoxa moschatellina), Lesser Pond Sedge (Carex acutiformis), Giant Horsetail (Equisetum telmateia) and Meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria). Selection criteria: HCr2(d), Scr13
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