Microsoft word - p051-61_sc ss10to12apr1.doc

Science scope and sequence chart: Grades 10 to 12 Advanced
Methods of scientific
• Identification of a focused research question with investigation
• Selection of appropriate equipment and materials • Identifying and controlling variables • Working constructively and adaptively with others • Evaluating experimental design, identifying weaknesses and developing realistic strategies for improvement • Working in an ethical manner with regard to acknowledging data sources and authenticity of results and with regard to living things and the environment • Making critical use of secondary information Know how scientists work
• Historical development of major scientific ideas • Historical development of major scientific ideas • Historical development of major scientific ideas • Handling scientific controversies; scientific value of • Development of scientific ideas entails periods of major • Balancing the opportunities offered by science with changes followed by periods of slow elaboration • Influence on science of its economic, social cultural, • Influence on science of its economic, social cultural, • Power and limitations of science in addressing • Power and limitations of science in addressing industrial, social and environmental questions industrial, social and environmental questions Processing and
• Presenting and processing raw data appropriately communicating information
• Drawing valid conclusions, allowing for errors and • Communicating results and conclusions Handling equipment and
• Handling equipment competently with due regard making measurements
• Following instructions accurately while adapting to 51 | Qatar science standards | Scope and sequence chart | Grades 10 to 12 Advanced Biological molecules
• Chemical constituents of carbohydrates, lipids and • Monosaccharides as monomers of other • Structure of starch, cellulose and proteins • Structure of glucose, amino acids, glycerol and • Composition of triglycerides and phospholipids • Primary, secondary and tertiary structure of • Relationships between structure and function and size and properties of biological molecules • Identification tests for proteins, sugars and starch • Separation and identification of compounds by Cellular structures and
• Structure and ultrastructure of prokaryotic and • Structure and role of mitochondria in respiration processes
• Structure and role of chloroplasts in photosynthesis • Cell organelles (nucleus, mitochondrion, • Fluid mosaic model of cell membrane in relation to chloroplast, endoplasmic reticulum and ribosome) • Diffusion, osmosis and active transport • Use of electron microscope and ultracentrifuge in 52 | Qatar science standards | Scope and sequence chart | Grades 10 to 12 Advanced Biological energetics
• Enzymes as proteins and biological catalysts • ATP as the immediate supply of energy for biological • Basic stages in biochemistry of anaerobic respiration • Importance of enzymes in lowering activation • Comparison of reaction pathways in aerobic and • Basic stages in biochemistry of aerobic respiration • Enzyme substrate-complex action of enzymes (glycolysis, Krebs cycle, oxidative phosphorylation) • Biochemical reactions in respiration • Competitive and non competitive enzyme • Leaf structure in relation to photosynthesis • Generation of ATP in aerobic and anaerobic respiration • Effects of change in temperature, pH, substrate • Basic stages in biochemistry of photosynthesis (light- • Decarboxylation and dehydrogenation reactions in dependent reaction, light-independent reaction) • Mechanism of enzyme action in terms of their • Role of ATP in respiration and photosynthesis • Relative energy values of carbohydrates, proteins and • Biochemical reactions in photosynthesis • Cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation in • Use of ATP and NADP in light-independent stage of • Use of carbon-14 in study of photosynthesis • Spectra of light absorbed and reflected by chlorophyll • Separation of chlorophyll pigments by chromatography Transport systems
• Need for transport system in multicellular animals • Need for a transport system in multicellular plants • Structure and function of red and white blood cells • External and internal structure of human heart in • Structure, function and distribution of phloem and • Role of blood, tissue fluid and lymph in transport xylem in roots, stems and leaves of dicotyledonous • Composition of blood and role of constituents in • Initiation and regulation of human heart beat • Movement of water between plant cells and between • Blood groups and their significance for blood cells and their environment in terms of water potential • Human blood system as a double closed • Xerophytic adaptations for water conservation • Red blood cells as carriers of oxygen 53 | Qatar science standards | Scope and sequence chart | Grades 10 to 12 Advanced Control, coordination and
• Organisms increase their chances of survival by • Structure, function and control of mammalian kidney in homeostasis
responding to changes in their environment • Process of thermoregulation in mammals • Role of thermoreceptors in hypothalamus • Roles of oestrogen, progesterone LH and FSH in the • Similarities and differences between hormonal and • Role of sensory receptors in mammals converting different forms of energy into nerve impulses • Sodium and potassium ions in nerve impulse • Human endocrine glands and their functions • Control of blood glucose concentration in humans Human health and disease
• Stem cells and monoclonal antibodies • Endemic, epidemic and pandemic diseases • Effects of smoking and disease on gaseous exchange • Active and passive immunity and vaccination • Action of antibiotics and development of resistance • Bronchitis, emphysema, asthma and lung cancer • Causes, transmission, control and significance of • Causes, transmission, control and significance of • Production of antibodies by the body and their 54 | Qatar science standards | Scope and sequence chart | Grades 10 to 12 Advanced Biological basis of inheritance
• Roles of DNA, mRNA and tRNA in protein • Mitosis as a mechanism to enable a constant number • DNA as genetic code controlling sequence of of chromosomes to be passed from cell to cell • Co-dominance and multiple allele inheritance • Use of chi-squared test to determine significance of • Changes in base sequence of DNA can change • Meiosis as mechanism to enable a constant number of the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide and chromosomes to be passed from generation to • Genetic fingerprinting, genetic screening and genetic • Genes and alleles as sections of DNA • Changes in structure of DNA as a source of genetic • Structure and function of chromosomes • Sexual reproduction as a mechanism of passing genetic material from one generation to the next • Mutations can reduce the efficiency of or block enzyme • How male and female gametes differ in size, • Random assortment and crossing over creates genetic • Genetic basis of sex determination in humans Diversity, selection and
• Species are classified into groups with shared • Evolution over a long period of time has given rise to • Structural and physiological adaptations of organisms evolution
• The kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, • Species are adapted to survive in particular • Key features of the main groups of animals and • Predation, disease and competition result in differential • Causes of variation within populations • Organisms with a selective advantage are more likely • Continuous and discontinuous variation to survive and pass on genes to next generation • Natural selection and isolation can lead to new species 55 | Qatar science standards | Scope and sequence chart | Grades 10 to 12 Advanced Ecological relationships
• Relationship of pyramids of numbers, biomass and • Interactions between organisms can cause changes in • Natural colonisation and ecological succession • Inter- and intra-specific competition for food and space, predation and disease limit the size of populations • Ecosystems are dynamic and subject to change • Production and conservation interest conflict • Impact of human activities on the environment Microbiology and
• Role of micro-organisms in recycling • Features of viruses, bacteria and fungi • Biosensor use in monitoring blood glucose levels in biotechnology
• Culture techniques for micro-organisms and cells • Treatment of human diabetes with insulin produced by • Moral and ethical issues of genetic engineering • Use of micro-organisms in food production CHEMISTRY
• Induced dipole intermolecular forces • Ionic, covalent and metallic bonding • Relationship between physical properties and bond • s, p, d, and f orbitals and hybridisation • Electron-pair repulsion and shapes of covalent • Write balanced molecular and ionic equations • σ and π bond overlap and molecular shape • Main characteristics of the three states of matter • Calculations of reacting quantities using the mole, • Empirical and molecular formulae calculations • Use the equation PV = nRT to describe ideal gas 56 | Qatar science standards | Scope and sequence chart | Grades 10 to 12 Advanced Industrial processes
• Haber process for making ammonia, its oxidation to • Properties and uses of the main gases of the air nitric acid and manufacture of fertilisers • Economic balance between industrial processes and • Sulfur and the contact process for making sulfuric acid • Exploitation of Qatar’s natural gas • Electrolysis of electrolytes, both molten and in • Industrial importance of the halogens and their • Manufacture of steel, copper, aluminium • Environmental issues related to chemical Patterns in chemical reactivity
• Periodicity in ionisation energy, electron affinity and • Trends in chemical properties across the third • Chemistry of nitrogen and phosphorus, including • s-block elements: properties, compounds and trends • Trends down groups I, II, VII and VIII • p-block elements: properties, compounds and trends • Common characteristics of transition metals • d-block elements: properties, compounds and trends • Oxidation and reduction in terms of oxygen transfer • Strong and weak acids and alkalis, pH • Redox reactions and oxidation number • Neutralisation, titrations and indicators, salts, • Variable oxidation states and transition metals • Relating cell potentials to metal reactivity series • Half-cell reactions and standard electrode potentials • Environmental issues related to rechargeable cells • The faraday and quantitative electrochemistry 57 | Qatar science standards | Scope and sequence chart | Grades 10 to 12 Advanced Environmental chemistry
• Pollution of the atmosphere, natural sinks and • Pollution from the combustion of hydrocarbons • Atmospheric warming and climate change • Measures to reduce atmospheric pollution • Disposal of waste heat in industrial complexes Reaction kinetics and
• Rate and equilibrium constants and equations energetics
• Explanation of kinetics in terms of kinetic particle • Rate constant and temperature and energy of • Bimolecular reaction in terms of particle collisions • Reversible reactions and dynamic equilibria • Activation energy and energy profiles • Effect of a catalyst on the activation energy • Entropy and disorder and the second law of • Energy considerations associated with bond • Standard entropy and free energy changes and 58 | Qatar science standards | Scope and sequence chart | Grades 10 to 12 Advanced Organic chemistry
• Nomenclature, structure, bonding and shape • Shape of organic compounds and electronic structure • Electrophilic and nucleophilic reaction mechanisms • Nomenclature, structure and bonding of aromatic • Alcohols, halogen compounds, aldehydes and ketones, • Phenol and bromobenzene, comparison with aliphatic • Nitroarenes, amines and azo-compounds Macromolecules
• Addition and condensation polymerisation reactions • Amino acids and proteins: structure and function • Nucleotides and nucleic acids: structure and function • Natural polymers: proteins, cellulose and nucleic acids • Relationship between structure of polymers and • Polymer additives, plasticisers, foams Measurement
• Simplifying assumptions in problem solving Mechanics and kinematics
• Displacement, speed, velocity and acceleration, • Newton’s laws of motion and their application • Circular motion, angular velocity and momentum • Gravitational and inertial mass, weight • Kinetic and potential energy of orbiting objects • Dynamic and static friction; coefficients of friction • Principle of moments and its applications 59 | Qatar science standards | Scope and sequence chart | Grades 10 to 12 Advanced Matter and energy
• Classification of solids in terms of tensile strength, • Properties of solids and liquids, expansion, • Transmission of heat by conduction, convection and • Stretching a solid; the Young modulus • Ocean and atmospheric convection currents and • Pressure and density, floating and sinking • Theoretical treatment of ideal gas particle movement • Specific heat capacity and specific latent heat • Internal energy, kinetic energy and temperature Waves and oscillations, light
• Waves as a way of transmitting energy; • Reflection, refraction, superposition, interference and and optics, sound
• Forced oscillation, resonance and damping • Wave frequency, wavelength, velocity, period, • Diffraction and interference of electromagnetic waves • Determination of velocity of sound and its • Coherence and polarisation of electromagnetic waves • Standing and progressive waves, node and • Reflection, refraction and dispersion of light and • Mirrors and lenses and their applications • Total internal reflection and its applications Electricity and magnetism
• Conductors, semiconductors and insulators, • Electric field strength and force on charges in a field; • Charging by friction, rules of electrostatics • Use of different kinds of resistors as potential dividers • Making magnets; properties of magnets; rules of • Capacitance and the relationship between coulombs, volts and energy; construction of capacitors • Bistable and astable switching and memory • Electromagnetic induction; factors affecting induced • Magnetic flux patterns due to a wire, a coil and a • Eddy currents and their applications Q = It, V = W/Q and V = IR • Voltage, e.m.f. and internal resistance 60 | Qatar science standards | Scope and sequence chart | Grades 10 to 12 Advanced Quantum, atomic and nuclear
• The nuclear atom and subatomic particles • Emission and absorption spectra and electron orbitals • Radioactive decay, half-life, properties of α-, β-and γ- • E = hf, photons and the photoelectric effect • Quantisation of charge and Millikan’s experiment • Radioisotopes and some of their uses • Interconversion of matter and energy • Nuclear fission and fusion, occurrence and uses • Properties of the electron and applications of electron Astrophysics and cosmology
• Structure of the visible Universe; stars and galaxies • Star life cycles and the nuclear reactions in them • ‘Big bang’ theory, expansion of the Universe and the 61 | Qatar science standards | Scope and sequence chart | Grades 10 to 12 Advanced 62 | Qatar science standards | Scope and sequence chart | Grades 10 to 12 Advanced



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