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(film hydration method)
(reverse phase evaporation method)
(dehydration-rehydration method)
(proniosome method)
(ether injection method)
(ethanol injection method)
(hand shaking method)
(remote loading method)
Table 1 Advantages and disadvantages of different methods of determination of entrapment efficiency
Large volumes of dialysate required(may not be suitable for drugs requiring specialised disposal) May lead to the destruction of fragile systems Not suitable for highly viscous formulations Not suitable for formulations with a large particle Not suitable for highly viscous formulations Not suitable for formulations with a large particle Not suitable for formulations with a large particle [1] BEHROOZ N. Effect of cholesterol and temperature on the elastic properties of niosomal membranes [J]. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 2005, 300: 95 101. [2] HANDJANIVILA R M, RLBIER A, RONDOT B, et al. Dispersion of lamellar phases of non-ionic lipids in cosmetic products [J]. International journal of cosmetic Science, 1979, 1: 303 314. ISRAELACHVILI J N. Intermolecular and Surface Forces [M]. Sydney: Academic Press, 1985: 121. [5] UCHEGBU I F, VYAS S P. Non-ionic surfactant based vesicles (niosomes) in drug delivery [J]. International Journal [6] PILLAI G K, SALIM M L D. Enhanced inhibition of platelet aggregation in-vitro by niosome-encapsulated indomethacin [J]. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 1999, 193:123 127. [7] DEVARAJ G N, PARAKH S R, DEVRAJ R, et al. Release studies on niosomes containing fatty alcohols as bilayer stabilizers instead of cholesterol [J]. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 2002, 251: 360 365. [8] ARUNOTHAYANUN P, UCHEGBU I F, CRAIG D Q M, et al. In vitro/in vivo characterisation of polyhedral niosomes [J]. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 1999, 183: 57 61. [9] VYAS S P, VENKATESAN N. Poly(phthaloyl-L-lysine)-coated multilamellar vesicles for controlled drug delivery: in vitro and in vivo performance evaluation [J]. Pharmaceutica Acta Helvetiae, 1999, 74: 51 58. [10] GOPINATH D, RAVI D, RAO B R, et al. Ascorbyl palmitate vesicles (aspasomes): Formation, characterization and applications [J]. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 2004, 271: 95 113. [11] GIRIGOSWAMI A, DAS S, DE S. Fluorescence and dynamic light scattering studies of niosomes-membrane mimetic systems [J]. Spectrochimica Acta Part A, 2006, 64: 859 866. [12] PARDAKHTY A, VARSHOSAZ J, ROUHOLAMINI A. In vitro study of polyoxyethylene alkyl ether niosomes for delivery of insulin [J]. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 2007, 328: 130 141. [13] JAIN S, SINGH P, MISHRA V, et al. Mannosylated niosomes as adjuvant-carrier system for oral genetic immunization against Hepatitis B [J]. Immunology Letters, 2005, 101: 41 49. [14] AGGARWAL D, PAL D, MITRA A K, et al. Study of the extent of ocular absorption of acetazolamide from a developed niosomal formulation, by microdialysis sampling of aqueous humor [J]. International Journal of [15] UCHEGBU I F, DUNCAN R. Niosomes containing N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide copolymer-doxorubicin (PK1): Effect of method of preparation and choice of surfactant on niosome characteristics and a preliminary study of body distribution [J]. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 1997, 155: 7 17. [16] PERRIEA Y, BARRALET J E, MCNEIL S, et al. Surfactant vesicle-mediated delivery of DNA vaccines via the subcutaneous route [J]. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 2004, 284: 31 41. [17] VORA B, KHOPADE A J, JAIN N K. Proniosome based transdermal delivery of levonorgestrel for effective contraception [J]. Journal of Controlled Release, 1998, 54: 149 165. [18] ALSARRA I A, BOSELA A A, AHMED S M, et al. Proniosomes as a drug carrier for transdermal delivery of ketorolac [J]. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 2005, 59: 485 490. [19] FANG J Y, HONG C T, CHIU W T, et al. Effect of liposomes and niosomes on skin permeation of enoxacin [J]. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 2001, 219: 61 72. [20] DUFES C, SCHATZLEIN A G, TETLEY L, et al. Niosomes and polymeric chitosan based vesicles bearing transferrin and glucose ligands for drug targeting [J]. Pharmaceutical Research, 2000, 17(10): 1250 1258. [21] UCHEGBU I F. The biodistribution of novel 200-nm palmitoyl muramic acid vesicles [J]. International Journal of [22] HOFLAND H E J, BOUWSTR A, et al. Safety aspects of non-ionic surfactant vesicles-a toxicity study related to the physicochemical characteristics of non-ionic surfactants [J]. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 1992, 44: [23] DIMITRIJEVIC D, LAMANDIN C, UCHEGBU I F, et al. The effect of monomers and of micellar and vesicular forms of non-ionic surfactants (Solulan C24 and Solulan 16) on Caco-2 cell monolayers [J]. Journal of Pharmacy and [24] DUFES C, MULLER J M, COUET W, et al. Anticancer drug delivery with transferrin targeted polymeric chitosan vesicles [J]. Pharmaceutical Research, 2004, 21(1): 101 107. [25] AGARWAL R, KATARE O P, VYAS S P. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of liposomal/niosomal delivery systems for antipsoriatic drug dithranol [J]. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 2001, 228: 43 52. [26] MANCONI M, SINICO C, VALENTI D, et al. Niosomes as carriers for tretinoin I Preparation and properties [J]. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 2002, 234: 237 248. [27] ERDOGAN S, YEKTAOZER A, BILGILI H. In vivo behaviour of vesicular urokinase [J]. International Journal of [28] PALOZZA P, MUZZALUPO R, TROMBINO S, et al. Solubilization and stabilization of β-carotene in niosomes:Delivery to cultured cells [J]. Chemistry and Physics of Lipids, 2006, 139: 32 42. [29] UCHEGBU I F, MCCARTHY D, SCHATZLEIN, et al. Phase-transitions in aqueous dispersions of the hexadecyl diglycerol ether C16G2 non-ionic surfactant, cholesterol and cholesteryl poly-24-oxyethylene ether-vesicles, tubules, discomes and micelles [J]. Stp Pharma Sciences, 1996, 6: 33 43. [30] GIANASI E, COCIANCICH F, UCHEGBU I F, et al. Pharmaceutical and biological characterization of a doxorubicin-polymer conjugate (PK1) entrapped in sorbitan monostearate Span 60 niosomes [J]. International Journal [31] WANG T, DENG Y J, GENG Y H, et al. Preparation of submicron unilamellar liposomes by freeze-drying double emulsions [J]. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta , 2006, 1758: 222 231. Progress of study on niosomes
(School of Pharmacy , Shenyang Pharmaceutical University , Shenyang 110016, China) Abstract: Objective To introduce the research progress of niosomes. Methods Based on the recent
references, the concept, formation condition, composition, preparation, determination of entrapment efficiency and toxicity study was reviewed, with focus on the preparation methods. Results and
conclusions Niosome is a novel targeted drug delivery system, with a wide and promising future.
Key words: pharmaceutics; niosomes; Israelachvili theory; preparation; entrapment efficiency; toxicity

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The h1n1 vaccine coding guidelines have been updated to include the 90470 code recently released from the american medical association (ama) for h1n1 vaccine administration

The H1N1 Vaccine Coding Guidelines have been updated to include the 90470 code recently released from the American Medical Association (AMA) for H1N1 vaccine administration. This new code or the previously communicated G9141 code can be used when billing the H1N1 vaccine administration for a CIGNA medical plan. CIGNA will reimburse health care professionals and facilities for the administration


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