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Microsoft word - abstract_diversity of aromas_english.doc
International Olive Oil Award - Zurich
Annette Bongartz – Zurich University of Applied Sciences (ZHAW)
Food Sensory Science Group / www.degu.ch / www.oliveoilaward.ch
The description of the diversity of aromas in olive oil is based on the necessary initial
step of classification. In this step, the absence of defects and the intensity of positive
characteristics are tested in accordance with the regulations of the EU and the COI. Defects
o Characteristic flavour of oil obtained from olives piled or stored in such
conditions as to have undergone an advanced stage of anaerobic fermen-tation, or of oil which has been left in contact with the sediment that set-tles in underground tanks and vats and which has also undergone a proc-ess of anaerobic fermentation.
o Characteristic flavour of oils obtained from fruit in which large numbers of
fungi and yeasts have developed as a result of its being stored in humid conditions for several days.
o Characteristic flavour of certain oils reminiscent of wine or vinegar. This
flavour is mainly due to a process of aerobic fermentation in the olives or in acid-sour olive paste left on pressing mats which have not been prop-erly cleaned and leads to the formation of acetic acid, ethyl acetate and ethanol.
o Flavour that is reminiscent of metals. It is characteristic of oil which has
been in prolonged contact with metallic surfaces during crushing, mixing, pressing or storage.
o Flavour of oils which have undergone an intense process of oxidation
o Characteristic flavour of oils caused by excessive and/or prolonged heating
during processing, particularly when the paste is thermally mixed, if this is done under unsuitable thermal conditions.
o Characteristic flavour of certain oils produced from olives that have dried
o Thick, pasty mouthfeel sensation produced by certain old oils.
o Flavour of oil reminiscent of that of diesel oil, grease or mineral oil.
o Flavour acquired by the oil as a result of prolonged contact with vegetable
water which has undergone fermentation processes.
o Flavour of oil extracted from olives which have been preserved in brine.
o Characteristic flavour of oil obtained from olives pressed in new esparto
mats. The flavour may differ depending on whether the mats are made of green esparto or dried esparto.
o Flavour of oil obtained from olives which have been collected with earth or
o Flavour of oil obtained from olives which have been heavily attacked by
the grubs of the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae).
o Flavour produced when an oil is hermetically packed for too long, particu-
larly in tin containers, and which is attributed to the formation of 2,6 non-adienal.
o Characteristic flavour of oils extracted from olives which have been injured
o Set of olfactory sensations characteristic of the oil which depends on the
variety and comes from sound, fresh olives, either ripe or unripe. It is per-ceived directly and/or through the back of the nose.
Intense when the median of the fruitiness is more than 4.5 Medium when the median of the fruitiness is between 3 and 4.5 Light
when the median of the fruitiness is less than 3
• Set of olfactory sensations characteristic of the oil which is
reminiscent of green fruit, depends on the variety of olive and comes from green, sound, fresh olives. It is perceived directly and/or through the back of the nose.
• Set of olfactory sensations characteristic of the oil which is
reminiscent of ripe fruit, depends on the variety of olive and comes from sound, fresh olives, green or ripe. It is perceived directly and/or through the back of the nose.
o Characteristic primary taste of oil obtained from green olives or olives
turning colour. It is perceived in the circumvallate papillae on the “V” re-gion of the tongue. It defines the primary taste associated with aqueous solutions of substances like quinine and caffeine.
o Biting tactile sensation characteristic of oils produced at the start of the
crop year, primarily from olives that are still unripe. It can be perceived throughout the whole of the mouth cavity, particularly in the throat.
In order to describe olive oils after the step of classification, further assessment criteria are needed.
o Oil which does not display a lack of balance, by which is meant the olfac-
tory–gustatory and tactile sensation where the median of the bitter and / or pungent attributes is about two points higher than the median of the fruitiness.
o Length of time that mostly retronasal sensations persist after the sip of
o Almond - Olfactory sensation reminiscent of fresh almonds
o Apple - Olfactory sensation reminiscent of the odour of fresh apples
o Artichoke - Olfactory sensation of artichokes
o Camomile - Olfactory sensation reminiscent of that of camomile flowers
o Citrus fruit - Olfactory sensation reminiscent of that of citrus fruit (lemon,
orange, bergamot, mandarin and grapefruit)
o Eucalyptus - Olfactory sensation typical of Eucalyptus leaves
o Exotic fruit - Olfactory sensation reminiscent of the characteristic odours of
exotic fruit (pineapple, banana, passion fruit, mango, papaya, etc.)
o Fig leaf - Olfactory sensation typical of fig leaves
o Flowers - Complex olfactory sensation generally reminiscent of the odour
o Grass - Olfactory sensation typical of freshly mown grass
o Green pepper - Olfactory sensation of green peppercorns
o Green - Complex olfactory sensation reminiscent of the typical odour of
o Greenly fruity - Olfactory sensation typical of oils obtained from olives that
have been harvested before or during colour change
o Herbs - Olfactory sensation reminiscent of that of herbs
o Olive leaf - Olfactory sensation reminiscent of the odour of fresh olive
o Pear - Olfactory sensation typical of fresh pears
o Pine kernel - Olfactory sensation reminiscent of the odour of fresh pine
o Ripely fruity - Olfactory sensation typical of oils obtained from olives that
o Soft fruit - Olfactory sensation typical of soft fruit: blackberries, raspber-
ries, bilberries, blackcurrants and redcurrants
o Sweet pepper - Olfactory sensation reminiscent of fresh sweet red or
o Tomato - Olfactory sensation typical of tomato leaves
o Vanilla - Olfactory sensation of natural dried vanilla powder or pods, dif-
o Walnut - Olfactory sensation typical of shelled walnuts
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