January 2006
Approximately 2 million American children, or Children diagnosed with the inattentive form of 3% to 5%, have Attention Deficit Hyperactivity perspective, this means that in a typical • Become easily distracted by sights or sounds classroom of 25-30 children, at least one of them will have ADHD (National Institute of Mental Health 2005). While the people with this disorder vary tremendously regarding personality type, environmental setting, and type of ADHD, they have one thing in common: they constantly struggle in school and at home interesting fact about ADHD diagnosis. Unlike many disorders, the symptoms of ADHD are common to some extent in almost all children. becomes apparent in childhood during the This may cause some people to be skeptical about the existence of ADHD, but the guidelines children find behaving correctly and paying for the disorder contain specific requirements attention extremely difficult. There are three that must be met before official diagnosis such different types of ADHD. Some people are as; the behavior must be demonstrated to an diagnosed with the predominantly hyperactive- inappropriate degree, it must appear early in life, continue for at least 6 months, not be inattentive, and some have symptoms of both caused by any obvious environmental factors and therefore are diagnosed with the combined (such as sudden family problems), and it must create a problem with functioning in at least two hyperactivity-impulsivity form of ADHD are areas of the child’s life such as in school and at • Constantly “on the go” or in motion unknown, there are several factors that influence a child’s susceptibility. Most causes of ADHD • Excessive fidgeting (wiggling feet, tapping a are either neurobiological or genetic. Some environmental factors may influence the course or severity of the disorder but environmental • Inability to curb immediate reactions to factors, such as parenting style, play little if any role in causing its initial onset. The two environmental agents that do appear to mediate ADHD to some degree are the use of drugs Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Research Brief
January 2006
during pregnancy, and levels of lead found in cause of their problems is ADHD. Adults with ADHD usually have it as a child; between 30% Unfortunately, both these factors are correlated and 70% of all children with ADHD continue to exhibit a significant number of the symptoms in considering the lack of prenatal care and child their adult years. These symptoms often evolve development education in some low income and manifest themselves in different ways. For communities, and the high levels of lead in example, instead of constantly skipping from paints used in older buildings (commonly found one task to another, an adult with ADHD may in government housing projects). Biological feel continuously restless and unsatisfied and include injury to the brain, certain food additives and refined sugar, and especially genetics. Family and twin studies indicate that There are several different treatments for 25% of close relatives of ADHD children also ADHD that appear to work effectively for adults meet diagnostic criteria for ADHD, compared to and children. The most effective treatment plan a rate of approximately 5% in the general is long-term combination treatments that include behavioral therapy and medication. Most drugs regarding genetic contributors to ADHD, more public education on environmental agents and stimulants. The effectiveness of these drugs the importance of maintaining a healthy lifestyle varies from person to person and it is best for is needed (National Institute of Mental Health the doctor and patient to experiment and see which one works best. The only non-stimulant treatment for ADHD approved by the FDA is There are many issues to be examined regarding Strattera (atomexetine), which utilizes the brain’s supply of norephinephrine rather than high rates of comorbidity with several other dopamine, the neurotransmitter manipulated by disorders. First and foremost, up to 30% of stimulants such as Ritalin. It is important to remember that medications can not cure ADHD; learning disability. These disabilities include they can only help moderate the symptoms. Medications are most effective and long lasting dyslexia), spelling, writing, and arithmetic. Other disorders are also found in children with accompanied by behavioral therapy, emotional counseling, and practical support. Behavioral oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, therapy is the most effective form of therapy for anxiety and depressive disorders, and bipolar disorder (National Institute of Mental Health behavioral interventions such as (National • Scheduling- having a structured and detailed children, adults can be diagnosed with the disorder as well. Not much is known about ADHD in adults therefore diagnosing adult everything neat and organized helps people ADHD is difficult and often happens in an diagnosed with ADHD and the parent becomes • Using homework or notebook organizers- familiar with the symptoms and treatment they this helps children with ADHD not forget professional help for other disorders such as There are several controversial issues today depression or anxiety and find that the root regarding the diagnosis and treatment of January 2006 Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Research Brief
ADHD. Since the 1990’s there has been a vast over diagnosis in this region these 700% increase in stimulant use in children in the correlations should be taken seriously. Further U.S. (LeFever 2003). Some suggest ADHD is research is needed to separate the true cases of being over diagnosed so that parents can have access to drugs such as Ritalin to curb their medicated cases. This is particularly true in our child’s behavior instead of giving them more area, because Texas has been ranked in the top attention and disciplining them adequately. One study found that the increase in stimulant use prescription claims (Utah Department of Health communities, however in some communities, ADHD is grossly over diagnosed causing the There are several possible policy implications 700% increase in stimulant use. Additionally, for communities when addressing people with some suggest that over diagnosis of ADHD in ADHD. One possible change at a federal level public schools is actually rewarded by federal would be to modify the IDEA so schools are not laws such as the Individuals with Disabilities rewarded for diagnosing children with ADHD. Education Act (IDEA). IDEA allocates funds to In addition, individual communities can help school districts based on the number of disabled stop over diagnosis and over medication by children, therefore giving an incentive to label a implementing a public health approach to disruptive child with ADHD. Others say the increase in ADHD diagnosis is due to more interventions and also by addressing problems general problems in public schools such as a such as the lack of mental health professionals lack of mental health professionals and crowded in public schools and large student to teacher classrooms accompanied by poorly trained While the symptoms associated with ADHD can Though the cause of over diagnosis is not clear, be quite distressing, some researchers point out the effects are concerning. Ritalin use varies that children with ADHD have many strengths tremendously, and in some communities, such when compared to their counterparts. Children as southeastern Virginia, the rate of Ritalin use with ADHD are naturally creative and excel in is 100 times that of other communities. This is abstract tasks rather than educational systems significant because when used ineffectively, that focus, especially in the early years, on the Ritalin and other stimulants are correlated with “regurgitation” of facts model. In addition, things that are harmful to children. For children with ADHD are often gifted, but their example, in southeastern Virginia, students talents need to be cultivated by a patient and labeled with ADHD were 3 to 7 times more knowledgeable adult (Honos-Webb 2005). In likely than their peers to experience adverse conclusion, ADHD is associated with many educational outcomes such as; being expelled, problems such as debilitating symptoms and a suspended, requiring special education services, vast over diagnosis and over medication in some areas. However, through behavioral techniques, Obviously some of these negative outcomes for carefully monitored medication, and creative students with ADHD could be due to their and patient caregivers children with ADHD can disorder not the label of the disorder or overcome their disorder and find a successful inappropriate stimulant use, but considering the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Research Brief
January 2006
Overuse of Medication. The Scientific Review of Mental Health Practice. [Online]. National Institute of Mental Health. (2005). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Health Status Update. [Online]. Available:


DRUG name (generic and common): Trimethoprim Polymyxin B Polymyxin B and trimethoprim are combined in an ophthalmic preparation for the treatment of acute bacterial ocular infections  interferes with folate synthesis in susceptible bacteria  blocks the production of tetrahydrofolic acid from  binds to phospholipids in the gram-negative bacterial cell  This binding destroys bacteri

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NATIONAL VETERINARY LABORATORY P.O. Box 239, 1Tice Road Franklin Lakes, NJ 07417 877-NVL-LABS (877-685-5227) NEWSLETTER Therapy of Bartonella Infection and Disease© Evelyn E. Zuckerman, Editor Summer 2008 Vol. 7, Number 3 In This Issue: eliminated Bartonella infection. In this case, the How to use Table 2 : The summer 2008 issue of

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