STRAND: Life processes in plants and animals Grade 11: Life processes related to homeostasis
Different organisms need support, transport and excretory systems, which differ in relation to size, surface area to volume ratio AND type of habitat (aquatic
or terrestrial). There is a relationship between transport and excretion systems of larger organisms and gaseous exchange mechanisms [done in Grade 10]. LO1 Investigating phenomena in the LO2 Constructing Life Sciences knowledge LO3 Applying Life Sciences Life Sciences in society Support and transport in plants Anatomy of dicotyledonous plants
Economic uses of plants related to their
Root and stem [leaf done in Grade 10] including the distribution of
anatomy e.g. fibres (xylem and sclerenchyma)
the different tissues – epidermis, xylem, phloem, sclerenchyma,
used to make paper, fabric, for weaving,
baskets, etc and secondary growth – wood for
Uptake of water and mineral salts into a root and their transport to Translocation of manufactured substances from leaves to other Transpiration:definition of and how water loss is related to leaf
structure [recap of grade 10] and the effects of variation in
temperature, humidity and light intensity on transpiration rate; how
Supporting systems and movement in animals
Different kinds of skeletons: hydrostatic skeleton, endoskeleton,
Diseases of the musculo-skeletal system:
exoskeleton. Advantages and disadvantages of each.
rickets, osteoporosis, arthritis, muscular
Identify bones comprising the axial skeleton [bones forming the skul
Injuries: sprains, strains, cramps, dislocations
not required] and the appendicular skeleton. [It is not necessary to
photographs of) different vertebrates Functions related to movement, protection, support, mineral storage
Importance of exercise for healthy muscular
and skeletal development and avoidance of
Tissues: Bone, cartilage, tendons and ligaments – structure as
related to function only. [Other details of tissue structure not
Types of joints: fixed, partly moveable and freely moveable (synovial)
Role of each of the fol owing in human locomotion- bones, joints,
ligaments, tendons and antagonistic muscles
How antagonistic muscles work together to raise or lower a limb.
Structure of skeletal muscle and changes in myofibril structure when
Transport in animals
Many animal groups have transport systems which include blood, blood vessels and heart arranged as circulatory systems
Basic design of open circulatory systems, closed circulatory systems
Human circulatory system
Structures indicating closed, double circulatory system (pulmonary
Cardiovascular diseases – congenital and
and systemic), identifying: heart and its associated blood vessels; brain, smal intestine, liver, kidneys and theirassociated major blood [link to grade 10] e.g. anaemia, high and low
vessels, indicatingthedirection of blood flow and distinction between blood pressure, heart attacks, strokes.
oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in different parts of the
circulatory system-this can be explained in diagrammatic format.
Significance of resting pulse rate in relation to
Heart structure – internal and external structure related to
functioning-to be articulated diagrammatical y.
Blood transfusions and blood types [link to
Events of cardiac cycle, relating events to the flow of blood through
Prof Chris Barnard and the first successful heart
Mechanisms control ing heartbeat and heart rate
Blood vessels – structure and function of arteries, veins and Blood and lymph as a tissue: Structure and function of constituent Relationship between lymphatic system and blood system
Diseases leading to kidney failure e.g. kidney
Excretion in humans
The role of each of the fol owing: lungs, kidney, liver, gut, bladder,
Injuries to kidneys and protective measures
skin indicating the substance each excretes and the origin(s) of
Dialysis and how it works with respect to
composition of fluids in different parts
The urinary system in humans – position of kidneys, ureters,
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of
kidney transplants, compared with dialysis
Structure and function of the kidney in terms of the removal of urea
and excess water and salts and the reabsorption of glucose and
Homeostatic control of water and salts in the kidney involving ADH
The structure and function of the nephron in filtration, reabsorption
STRAND: Life at the molecular, cellular and tissue level Grade 11: Viruses, bacteria, protists and fungi
In grade 11, we look at four main groups of organisms i.e. viruses, bacteria, protists and fungi. These 4 groups consist of micro-organisms and, in the case of
the protists and fungi, macro-organisms. They are either single-cel ed or form colonies of similar cel s or are made of primitive tissues. The viruses, bacteria,
protists and fungi play a very important role in the environment. In addition, many micro-organisms have an effect on the health of other living organisms.
Humans have used these organisms for thousands of years for a variety of purposes.
LO1 Investigating phenomena in the LO2 Constructing Life Sciences knowledge LO3 Applying Life Sciences Life Sciences in society Viruses, bacteria, protists and fungi Research using other resources eg Biodiversity of these organisms. [Link with grade 10] Historical developments Basic structures and general characteristics Important role in maintaining balance in the environment / in web
cholera, TB, influenza. Select data on of life. [Links to grade 10 & 12]IKS and biotechnology Roles in symbiotic relationships e.g. nitrogen-fixing bacteria in
• Traditional technology e.g. beer, mahewu,
plants; E. coli in human intestines. [Links to grade 10]
• Micro-organisms and biotechnology in the
Practical investigation: Look for Effects and management of at least ONE disease from each of
• viruses – e.g. rabies, HIV/AIDS, influenza
• bacteria – e.g. blight, cholera, tuberculosis, anthrax
Economic use of bacteria, protists and fungi
• fungi – e.g. rusts, thrush, ringworm
Medical biotechnology e.g. immunity, Immunity
• Immune response by plants or animals against infecting micro-
Beliefs, attitudes and values concerning
effectiveness of these treatments, e.g. • Use of drugs e.g. antibiotics and response of infecting micro-
causes of and cure of at least ONE disease
STRAND: Diversity, change and continuity Grade 11: Diversity of animals and plants and biogeography
Underlying concepts: Plants and animals can be grouped according to similarities in their basic structure or body plan. Members of each group have modified
versions of their basic body plan, depending on their mode of life. Biogeographic variation shows that different but similarly adapted species inhabit different
LO1 Investigating phenomena in the LO2 Constructing Life Sciences knowledge LO3 Applying Life Life Sciences Sciences in society Plant and animal diversity in South Africa
Enormous diversity of life in southern Africa, and the number of
Threats to biodiversity in South Africa:
Consider the impact of agriculture, industry,
human population growth, cities and roads on
Value of retaining biodiversity: tourism
Plants can be grouped according to the presence or absence of:
Ancient and unique plant groups in southern
Africa: cycads and Welwitschia. Ecotourism
and theft of cycads, conservation efforts.
as wel as the dependence on water for reproduction
important plants, such as fruit trees, and crops
• Bryophytes: no vascular tissue, no true leaves and roots,
Forestry – economic importance and impact
spores, depend on water for fertilisation
• Pterophytes: vascular tissue, true leaves and roots, spores,
• Gymnosperms and angiosperms: vascular tissue, true leaves
and roots, seeds, fertilization independent of water.
Gymnosperms produce cones which bear seeds with no
protective covering. Angiosperms produce flowers, the seed is
Concept of phylum as il ustrated by a body plan.
South Africa: distribution, prevalence, life
The Animal kingdom contains about 30 phyla, but we wil focus on
cycle, effects on host, treatment, and ways of
only six, i.e. Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes, Annelida,
reducing the spread. (Select a local parasitic
Arthropoda, Chordata, with respect to the fol owing body plans.
worm that is problematic for humans or other
• Symmetry (asymmetry, bilateral symmetry, radial symmetry)
• Number of tissue layers developing from the embryo (two or
• Absence or presence of a coelom (a cavity within the
vectors of pathogens that cause disease e.g
flies and cholera, ticks and tick bite fever,
• Presence or absence of a through-gut
mosquitoes and malaria, tsetse flies and
• Platyhelminthes (Planaria, flukes
• Phylum Porifera: asymmetrical, no tissues and no coelom;
Role of invertebrates in agriculture and
simple but highly specialized for filter-feeding
ecosystems (e.g. pol inators, decomposition,
• Phylum Cnidaria: radial y symmetrical, two tissue layers, no
coelom, single opening to the gastrointestinal cavity. Simple,
but possess highly specialized nematocysts.
Sustainable use of animals in South Africa
• Phylum Platyhelminthes: bilateral y symmetrical, three tissue
layers, no coelom, and a single opening to the gut.
• Phylum Annelida: bilateral y symmetrical, three tissue layers, a
• Phylum Arthropoda: bilateral y symmetrical, three tissue layers,
coelom, through-gut, an exoskeleton made of chitin
• Phylum Chordata: bilateral y symmetrical, three tissue layers,
coelom, through-gut. Internal skeleton made of cartilage and
A very brief comparative analysis of the body plans of the different
phyla is required. It should be explained in the context of evolution.
Modifications of basic body plans
Select ONE of the fol owing for further study:
Looking for explanations for modifications of
Mammal forelimb: basic plan modified for digging (mole), flying
body plans: Charles Darwin proposed that
(bat), fast running (horse), swimming (seal) and climbing trees
modification of basic body plans indicates
Modification of feeding or locomotory appendages of insects for
Modification of flowers such as orchids (or any other suitable group)
Diversity exists within continents, but is even more striking on
Nature of science: Darwin’s explanation for
the biogeographic distribution of species.
Worldwide distribution of large flightless birds: ostrich in Africa, emu
in Australia, rhea in South America, and moa (recently extinct) in
New Zealand. These flightless birds resemble each other, and have
similar modes of life in each landmass, but they are distinctly
STRAND: Environmental Studies Grade 11: Human influences on the environment
Over thousands of years, humans have gradual y changed the environments they live in, in order to make their lives and their human endeavours easier,
safer, and more profitable. With the human population explosion and modern technology, these changes to the environment have been massive and have
had a significant local, national and global impact upsetting the balance in natural ecosystems and threatening the continuation of life on earth. In grade 11,
we examine human influences on the environment and consider ways in which we can contribute to a more sustainable future.
[This section could possibly be considered as belonging to LO 3, but we have chosen to place much of the content in LO 2 since scientific concepts are LO1 Investigating phenomena in the LO2 Constructing Life Sciences knowledge LO3 Applying Life Life Sciences Sciences in society Human influences on the environment
Air, land and water pol ution: causes, impact on the environment
ONE example of human influences on and on human health, and possible solutions.
• the ozone story – a success story?
Kyoto protocol, politics and economics -
• greenhouse effect and its importance for sustaining life on
• introduction and control of invasive alien
earth; enhanced greenhouse effect leading to global warming
or smoke from burning coal on a local • desertification, deforestation
• effects of overgrazing, crops and commercial forests on
• Deposits of poisonous substances in rivers and the water table.
Use food pyramids and food webs to interpret environmental
changes caused by humans e.g. destruction of fauna and flora by
pol utants in streams, rivers, or the sea; eutrophication of rivers;
impact of acid rain on ecosystems, deforestation on producers and
Pol ution and political, legal, economic, ethical,
consumers, insecticides and cul ing on consumers, and
overpopulation on producers and consumers.
Introduction of invasive alien species into South Africa, impact on
Environmental lobbying and the importance of
biodiversity, and mechanisms of control.
evidence. Biefly discuss the case study of St
Exploitation of local indigenous resources e.g. devils claw, rooibos,
fynbos, African potato, Hoodia, pepper-bark tree vs sustainability
Sustaining our environment e.g. management and treatment of
domestic waste and effluents from industry; reduction of emissions
through more sustainable use of resources.
Chapter 5 Quiz Review November 19, 2008 Answer questions on another sheet of paper. 1. Canada requires that cars be equipped with “daytime running lights,” headlights that automatically come on at a low level when the car is started. Many manufacturers are now equipping cars sold in the United States with running lights. Will running lights reduce accidents by making cars more visible?
Indian J Med Res 117, May 2003, pp 211-215Histopathologic effect of chronic use of sildenafil citrate on thechoroid & retina in male ratsH.S. Vatansever, O. Kayikcioglu* & B. Gumus† Departments of Histology & Embryology, *Ophthalmology & †Urology, Faculty of MedicineCelal Bayar University, Manisa-Turkey Background & objectives : Sildenafil citrate is an oral medicat