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Interim guidelines for management of suspected
Interim Guidelines for Management of Suspected
Staphylococcus aureus Skin and Soft Tissue Infections*
Risk factors associated with MRSA
History of MRSA infection, colonization
History (within past 12 months) of: hospitalization,
surgery, long term care residence, indwelling catheter
or medical device; dialysis, renal failure, diabetes, or
Close contact with someone known to be infected or
High prevalence of MRSA in community or population
Local risk factors: consult local public health department
Incision & drainage (I & D) of abscesses9 –
If I & D not performed, consider culture of
draining wounds, or aspirate or biopsy of central area of inflammation
Culture & antimicrobial susceptibility testing
Include “D-test” for clindamycin resistance if MRSA10
To decrease spread of infection, provide education on infection control measures and wound care to all patients
and/or caregivers of patients with S. aureus
infections, esp. those with MRSA per WAC 246.101.105(7)
sepsis syndrome, or limb-or life threatening
Low suspicion for MRSA
If oral antibiotics used –
If increased suspicion for
If increased suspicion for
MRSA based on presence of
MRSA based on presence
≥ 1 risk factor:
of ≥ 1 risk factor
MSSA: Methicillin susceptible S. aureus
*For details, see full text of Interim Guidelines for Evaluation &
MRSA: S. aureus resistant to all penicillins & cephalosporins
Management of Community-Associated Methicillin Resistant
β-lactam antibiotics: Includes all penicillins & cephalosporins
Skin and Soft Tissue Infections in Outpatient Settings
Interim Guidelines for Empiric Oral Antimicrobial Treatment of Outpatients with
Suspected MRSA Skin and Soft Tissue Infections (SSTI)
Selection of empiric therapy should be guided by local S. aureus
susceptibility and modified based on results of
culture and susceptibility testing. The duration of therapy for most SSTI is 7-10 days, but may vary depending
on severity of infection and clinical response. NOTE: Before treating, clinicians should consult complete
drug prescribing information in the manufacturer’s package insert or the PDR.
Base dose on TMP: 8-12 mg TMP (& 40-60 mg
SMX) per kg/day in 2 doses; not to exceed adult
Not recommended for pediatric use – suggest
consultation with infectious disease specialist
10-20 mg/kg/day in 3-4 doses; not to exceed adult
a If considering clindamycin, isolates resistant to erythromycin and sensitive to clindamycin should be evaluated
for inducible clindamycin resistance (MLSB phenotype) using the “D test.”
Consult with your reference laboratory to
determine if “D testing” is routine or must be specifically requested. If inducible resistance is present, an alternative agent to
clindamycin should be considered.11
If Group A streptococcal infection is suspected, oral therapy should include an agent active against this organism (β-
lactam, macrolide, clindamycin). Tetracyclines and Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, although active against many MRSA, are not recommended treatments for suspected GAS infections.
Outpatient use of quinolones or macrolides: Fluoroquinolones 13, 21-23 (e.g., ciprofloxin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin,
gatifloxacin) and macrolides (e.g., erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin) are NOT recommended for treatment of MRSA because of high resistance rates. If fluoroquinolones are being considered, consult with infectious disease specialist before use.
Outpatient use of linezolid in SSTI: 24,25 Linezolid is costly and has great potential for inappropriate use, inducing
antimicrobial resistance, and toxicity. Although it is 100% bioavailable and effective in SSTI, it is not recommended for empiric treatment or routine use because of these concerns. It is strongly recommended that linezolid only be used after consultation with an infectious disease specialist to determine if alternative antimicrobials would be more appropriate.
Eradication of MRSA Colonization
Efficacy of decolonization in preventing re-infection or transmission in the outpatient setting is not documented, and is NOT routinely recommended. Consultation with an infectious disease specialist is recommended before eradication of colonization is initiated.
Possible eradication regimens include: Rifampin
(Adult dose: 300mg PO bid x 5 days; pediatric dose: 10-12 mg/kg/day in 2 doses not to exceed 600 mg/d x 5
days) may be used in combination with TMP-SMX, OR
rifampin with doxycycline, OR
rifampin with minocycline, for
recurrent MRSA infection despite appropriate therapy. Never use rifampin monotherapy, due to the rapid emergence of resistance. Rifampin interacts with methadone,
oral hypoglycemics, hormonal contraceptives, anticoagulants, protease inhibitors, phenytoin, theophylline,
cardiac glycosides and other drugs.
Topical intranasal mupirocin
may be used bid for 5 days with or without systemic antimicrobial therapy.
with chlorhexidine or other agents may be used in addition to one or both of the above regimens.
This publication contains an abbreviated version of mywife's medical history as an individual with the full formof the MELAS Syndrome, a mitochondrial disorder. (Some of the symptoms and clinical signs of the MELAS Syndrome discussed inthis publication may be applicable to other mitochondrial disorders.) Karen Ann Jackson 1956-1992 This material was created, (and/or) assembled and edited
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