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02_972959 ftoc.qxd 1/31/05 3:37 PM Page vii Contents
Introduction * xvi
PART 1: KEY INFORMATION FOR UNDERSTANDING AND MANAGING ADHD
Section 1.1: Understanding Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder * 3
Definitions and Descriptions of ADHD * 3
Behavioral Characteristics of ADHD * 4
The Predominantly Inattentive Type of ADHD * 4
The Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type of ADHD * 6
Positive Traits and Characteristics Common in Many Children, Teens, and Adults
with ADHD * 9
Girls with Attention-Deficit Disorders * 9
ADHD and the “Executive Functions” * 10
ADHD “Look Alikes” * 11
ADHD and Co-Existing (or Associated) Disorders * 12
Statistics and Risk Factors * 13
What Is Currently Known About ADHD * 14
What May Be the Causes of ADHD * 17
What Is Not Known About ADHD * 20
ADHD and the Impact on the Family * 20
Section 1.2: Making the Diagnosis: A Comprehensive Evaluation for ADHD * 23
The Components of a Comprehensive Evaluation for ADHD * 24
Who Is Qualified to Evaluate a Child for ADHD? * 26
COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL
Section 1.3: Multimodal Treatments for ADHD * 29
Management Strategies * 29
AAP Guidelines and Additional Points * 32
A Word About Alternative and Unproven Treatments * 33
Section 1.4: Medication Treatment and Management * 35
Psychostimulant (Stimulant) Medications * 35
Antidepressants * 38
Atomoxetine (Strattera™) * 39
Other Medical Treatments * 39
What Teachers and Parents Need to Know If a Child/Teen Is on Medication * 39
vii
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Advice for Parents * 41
Interview with Mike * 42
Section 1.5: Do’s and Don’ts for Teachers and Parents * 43
Advice for Teachers * 43
Advice for Parents * 44
Interview with Spencer’s Mother * 47
Interview with Steve * 47
Section 1.6: Critical Factors in the Success of Students with ADHD * 49
Interview with Joe * 54
Section 1.7: ADHD and Social Skills Interventions * 55
Skill Deficits Versus Performance Deficits * 55
Interventions for Social Skills Problems * 56
School Interventions * 57
Child Social Skills Interventions * 59
Parent Interventions * 61
Summer Treatment Programs * 62
Section 1.8: ADHD in Preschool and Kindergarten * 63
Parent Concerns and Recommendations * 64
Preschool and Kindergarten Classroom Strategies for Success * 65
Creating the Climate for Success * 66
Management Techniques in Kindergarten * 68
What Else Is Important? * 70
What to Do About . . . * 72
Section 1.9: ADHD in Middle School and High School * 75
What All Adolescents Need * 76
The Value of Mentorship * 76
Dan’s Story * 77
The Core Symptoms of ADHD During Adolescence * 78
How Parents Can Help * 79
Why Can’t They “Act Their Age”? * 79
School Supports * 80
Exemplary Model Program for Students with ADHD (The ADHD Zero Point
Program) * 81
Looping in Middle School * 83
Student Support Teams * 84
Warning Signs of Trouble in Middle School and High School * 84
Warning Signs of Learning Disabilities in Secondary School Children * 85
Interview with Joe * 85
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Part 1: General References * 87
Part 1: Recommended Resources * 93
PART 2: MANAGING THE CHALLENGE OF ADHD BEHAVIORS
Section 2.1: Classroom Management and Positive Discipline Practices * 97
Common Triggers or Antecedents to Misbehavior * 98
Classroom Management Tips * 99
Addressing Student Misbehavior * 109
Possible Corrective Consequences * 110
Interview with Brad * 113
Section 2.2: Preventing or Minimizing Behavior Problems During Transitions
and Less Structured Times * 115
Some Ways to Help * 115
Section 2.3: Individualized Behavior Management, Interventions,
and Supports * 119
Understanding the ABCs of Behavior * 119
Target Behaviors * 120
Goal Sheets * 121
Home Notes and Daily Report Cards * 121
Chart Moves * 126
Contracts * 126
Token Economy or Token Programs * 127
Response Costs * 127
Self-Monitoring * 129
Rewards * 130
Strategies to Aid Calming and Avoid Escalation of Problems * 130
Tips for Dealing with “Challenging” or “Difficult” Kids * 132
What Is an FBA? * 133
What Is a BIP? * 135
Guiding Questions for Behavioral Issues * 136
Section 2.4: Strategies to Increase Listening, Following Directions,
and Compliance * 139
Tips for Teachers and Parents * 139
Compliance Training * 143
Section 2.5: Attention!! Strategies for Engaging, Maintaining, and Regulating
Students’ Attention * 145
Getting and Focusing Students’ Attention * 145
Maintaining Students’ Attention Through Active Participation * 147
Questioning Techniques to Increase Student Response Opportunities * 149
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Keeping Students On-Task During Seatwork * 153
Tips for Helping Inattentive, Distractible Students * 154
Self-Monitoring Attention and Listening Levels (Self-Regulatory Techniques) * 155
Part 2: General References * 159
Part 2: Recommended Resources * 161
PART 3: INSTRUCTIONAL AND ACADEMIC STRATEGIES AND SUPPORTS
Section 3.1: Reaching Students Through Differentiated Instruction * 165
What Differentiation Means * 165
What Can Be Differentiated? * 167
Flexible Grouping * 167
Multiple Intelligences * 167
Layered Curriculum * 169
Interview with Bob * 169
Section 3.2: Multisensory Instruction * 171
Multisensory Strategies for Learning Multiplication Tables * 172
Multisensory Spelling Strategies and Activities * 175
Instructional Suggestions for Teachers * 177
Accommodations and Modifications * 178
Interview with Brita * 179
Section 3.3: Reaching Students Through Their Learning Styles and Multiple
Intelligences * 181
Learning Styles * 182
Environmental Adaptations and Accommodations * 186
Multiple Intelligences * 190
Student Learning Style/Interest Interview * 191
Interview with Amy * 193
Section 3.4: The Advantages of Cooperative Learning for Students
with ADHD * 195
The Five Elements of Cooperative Learning * 196
Getting Started with Group Work * 197
Structuring to Achieve Positive Interdependence * 197
Teaching Social Skills Through Cooperative Learning * 198
Section 3.5: Organization, Time Management, and Study Skills * 207
What Teachers and Parents Can Do to Help Build Organization Skills * 208
What Teachers and Parents Can Do to Help with Time Management * 212
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Section 3.6: Learning Strategies and Study Skills * 223
Learning Strategies * 223
Study Skills * 227
Interview with Susan * 231
Section 3.7: Writing and Reading Challenges for Students with ADHD * 233
Why Writing Is Such a Struggle for Students with ADHD * 233
Common Reading Difficulties in Children and Teens with Attention-Deficit
Disorders * 235
Reading Disabilities/Dyslexia * 237
What Research Tells Us About Learning to Read and Reading Difficulties * 237
What Is Known About Effective Intervention for Struggling Readers * 239
Section 3.8: Written Language Strategies, Accommodations, and Interventions:
Pre-Planning/Organizing, Handwriting, Assistive
Technology
* 241
Strategies to Help with Planning/Organizing (Pre-Writing) * 241
Strategies for Improving Fine Motor, Handwriting, Written Organization,
and Legibility * 245
Strategies for Bypassing and Accommodating Writing Difficulties * 248
Section 3.9: Strategies for Building Written Expression and Editing Skills * 253
Written Expression—Strategies and Support * 253
More Instructional Recommendations * 256
Help with Editing Strategies and Other Tips * 257
Section 3.10: Reading Strategies and Interventions: Building Decoding Skills,
Vocabulary, and Fluency * 261
The Reading Process: What Good Readers Do * 261
Strategies for Building Word Recognition, Reading Vocabulary, and Fluency * 262
Independent Reading * 266
Oral Reading Strategies * 266
Vocabulary Enhancement * 267
Reading Tips and Strategies for Parents * 268
Research-Based Reading Intervention Programs * 269
Interview with Malinda * 271
Section 3.11: Reading Comprehension Strategies and Interventions * 273
Pre-Reading Strategies * 273
During-the Reading Strategies * 274
After-Reading Strategies * 275
Graphic Organizers (Graphic Outlines or Graphic Aids) * 275
Other Reading Comprehension/Meaning-Making Strategies * 276
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Other Active Reading/Discussion Formats * 279
Book Projects/Activities * 282
Interview with John * 283
Section 3.12: Mathematics: Challenges and Strategies * 285
Math Difficulties Associated with ADHD * 285
Math Strategies and Interventions * 287
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Standards * 292
Part 3: General References * 299
Part 3: Recommended Resources * 309
PART 4: PERSONAL STORIES AND CASE STUDIES
Section 4.1: A Parent’s Story: What Every Teacher and Clinician
Needs to Hear * 313
A Parent’s Story * 313
Section 4.2: Case Studies and Interventions (Adam and Vincent) * 327
Adam (Twelve Years Old, Seventh-Grade Student) * 328
Vincent (Seventeen Years Old, High School Senior) * 338
PART 5: COLLABORATIVE EFFORTS AND SCHOOL RESPONSIBILITIES IN
HELPING CHILDREN WITH ADHD
Section 5.1: Teaming for Success: Communication, Collaboration, and Mutual
Support * 361
The Necessity of a Team Approach * 361
The Parents’ Role in the Collaborative Team Process * 362
The Educators’ Role in the Collaborative Team Process * 367
The Clinicians’ Role in the Collaborative Team Process * 370
Cultural Sensitivity and Its Impact on Effective Communication and
Collaboration * 370
Final Thoughts on Home/School Collaboration * 371
Section 5.2: The Role of the School’s Multidisciplinary Team * 373
The Student Support Team (SST) Process * 373
If You Suspect a Student Has ADHD * 378
The School’s Role and Responsibilities in the Diagnosis of ADHD * 380
School-Based Assessment for ADHD * 381
Section 5.3: School Documentation and Communication with Medical Providers
and Others * 385
Communication with Physicians * 385
Communication Between Schools * 389
Communication with Community Health Providers/Organizations * 391
Teacher Documentation * 394
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Section 5.4: Educational Laws and Rights of Students with ADHD * 395
Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) * 395
Section 504 * 398
Which One May Be Better for a Student with ADHD—A 504 Plan or an IEP? * 400
Disciplining Students with Disabilities Under Special Education Law * 400
The Reauthorization of IDEA * 403
IDEA 2004 * 404
No Child Left Behind (NCLB) * 404
Section 5.5: Innovative Collaborative Programs for Helping Children
with ADHD * 407
The Utah Model—Intermountain Health Care’s (IHC’s) Care Management System for ADHD * 408
Project for Attention Related Disorder (PARD) of San Diego, California * 411
OU Pediatrics/Kendall Whittier Elementary—Collaborative Model of Care in
Tulsa, Oklahoma * 414
Insights from Dr. Donald Hamilton, OU Pediatrics * 416
More Innovative Programs and Projects for Improving the Lives of Those with
ADHD * 417
Part 5: General References * 419
Part 5: Recommended Resources * 421
PART 6: ADDITIONAL SUPPORTS AND STRATEGIES
Section 6.1: Stress Reduction, Relaxation Strategies, Leisure Activities,
and Exercise * 425
Fun and Laughter * 425
Breathing Techniques * 425
Yoga and Slow Movement Exercises * 426
Visualization and Guided Imagery * 427
Music * 428
Leisure Activities, Recreation, and Hobbies * 429
Exercise and Sports * 429
Section 6.2: Music for Relaxation, Transitions, Energizing, and
Visualization * 431
Music for a Calming Effect * 432
Music for Moving from Here to There * 433
Music for Transitional Times * 433
Effect of Music on Mood * 434
Interview with Bruce * 435
Part 6: General References * 437
Part 6: Recommended Resources * 439

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