Es ist nicht klar, wie groß die Rolle von Antibiotika https://antibiotika-wiki.de/ in den Wettbewerbsbeziehungen zwischen Mikroorganismen unter natürlichen Bedingungen ist. Zelman vaxman glaubte, dass diese Rolle minimal ist, Antibiotika werden nicht anders als in reinen Kulturen auf reichen Umgebungen gebildet. Anschließend wurde jedoch festgestellt, dass bei vielen Produzenten die Aktivität der antibiotikasynthese in Gegenwart anderer Arten oder spezifischer Produkte Ihres Stoffwechsels zunimmt.
Aocs division newsletter
AOCS Phospholipid Division Newsletter April 2008
As you are all aware, the AOCS Annual Meeting is fast approaching. Along with theopportunity to network and renew acquaintances comes the opportunity for continuingpersonal and professional education. Also it is a wonderful opportunity to get involvedand help promote the organizations that matter to you! Any organization requires inputand effort from all its members, and the Phospholipid Division is no exception. Divisionmeetings include a roundtable discussion where member input is sought andappreciated. As you attend the meeting this year (or think about attending), if you havesuggestions or critiques about what could be done better, please contact any of thedivision officers.
In this issue you will find several recent references to lecithin and health, anannouncement about a German prize for post graduate work in lecithin in honor ofHermann Pardun, and information about the ILPS short course at Ghent. Enjoy.
I look forward to seeing you in Seattle.
Here are some key division events to take note of:
Sunday, May 18, 1:00-2:30 p.m.: Board MeetingSunday, May 18, 12:00-1:00 p.m.: Roundtable DiscussionMonday, May 19, 12:00-2:00 p.m.: Luncheon ($35 early / $45 standard)Luncheon Speaker: Willem van Nieuwenhuyzen, President of ILPS, will speak on"The Past, Present, and Future of Lecithin and Phospholipids."
You may peruse the current draft of the technical program online.
Announcing the German Association of Lipid Science (DGF) Hermann Pardun Prize incelebration of Dr Pardun's 100th birthday on 14 April 2008.
This annual price will be given for the best master's thesis on lipid chemistry ortechnology.
The prize will compensate the winner for travelling and lodging costs for visiting theDGF Kaufmann conference.
Entries in English from a non-German university will also be accepted for the
Pardun was inventor of a number of Unilever patents on lecithins in the 1960s. After hisretirement he was advisor to Lucas Meyer Company. He published the book DiePflanzenlecithine in 1988.
If you know master's students working on a thesis on phospholipids, please forwardthem this information.
Short Course: Lecithin & Phospholipids in EmulsionsThursday and Friday 5-6 June 2008, Ghent, Belgium
After the Ghent 2005 and AOCS-Quebec 2007 Lecithin Short Courses, ILPS and GhentUniversity offer the 2008 short course, to be held in Het Pand, an old Dominicanmonastery owned by Ghent University, with laboratory demonstrations in theLaboratory of Food Technology.
Scientists, product developers, QA/QC managers, lab technicians, applicationtechnologists, plant supervisors and sales managers working with lecithin,phospholipids, emulsifiers and emulsions in the food, pharmaceutical, and otherindustries, institutes, or academia.
AOCS Phospholipid Division members are requested to disseminate this information totheir business contacts and staff.
Session I: Lecithin CharacterizationSession II: Emulsion Preparation and StabilizationSession III: Laboratory Demonstrations!! Participants may bring own their lecithin sample for testing !!Session IV: Emulsion Characterization
Session V: Food ApplicationsSession VI: LegislationSession VII: Applications II
Program details are on the website or ask organizer Willem van Nieuwenhuyzen.
Short Course Speakers / Instructors / Coordinators
Prof. Dr. Koen Dewettinck, Ghent UniversityDr. Reinhard Lange, Cargill Texturant Systems, GermanyDr. Jaap Nijsse, Unilever Research, The NetherlandsMrs. Saskia RombautVan der Looven, Ghent UniversityDr. Michael Schneider, Lecithos, GermanyProf. Dr. Paul Van der Meeren, Ghent UniversityIr. Willem van Nieuwenhuyzen, Lecipro Consulting, The NetherlandsIr. Judith van Peij-Visser, Kerry Bioscience, The Netherlands
Speaker information is given on the ILPS website.
Under the theme "Students meet Industry" M.Sc. and Ph.D. students are encouragedto submit posters on related topics. The Best Poster Award will be presented at the endof the course.
Program details, registration form, hotel and travel information are available athttp://www.ilps.org; for further information contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
Flanders' Food Emulsion Seminars in Spring 2008
Flanders Food is a Belgian association which disseminates food science information tomedium and small food processing enterprises in the northern part of Belgium, wherethe mother language is Dutch. The association also intermediates in European Unionsponsored research projects, by activating the participation of these medium and smallcompanies. And the staff organizes seminars.
On March 6 the one-day seminar on food emulsions and emulsification was held atAffligem near Brussels. The translated title was: "Find your way in emulsions." The fullclass of 45 participants followed this seminar. Speakers were Paul van der Meeren andKoen Dewettinck from the University of Ghent, Willem van Nieuwenhuyzen fromLecipro Consulting and Johan Lecluse from Cargill Texturant Systems.
Paul gave an in-depth introduction in principles of emulsion formation, stabilization andcharacterization by various methods and apparatus. Koen had to delegate thepresentation of his papers on emulsion preparation and rheology of emulsions to Ph.D.
student Eveline Fredrick. Willem presented the vast range of food grade low molecularweight emulsifiers (lecithin, monodiglycerides esters and others) and emulsifyingproteins, showing the synergy but also the competition of surface active agents at theinterface between oil and water. Yellow fat spreads and baked good were twopresented sectors of food use. Johan presented the thickening stability of hydrocolloidswith a focus on ice cream. This illustration was resonant, since everybody could
The successful event with be repeated on April 22 with a second fully booked class.
Information (in Dutch language): www.flandersfood.com
Dermal delivery of selected hydrophilic drugs from elastic liposomes: effect ofphospholipid formulation and surfactants; Ita, K.B.; Du Preez, J.; Lane, M.E.;Hadgraft, J.; du Plessis, J.; Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology59:1215-1222 (2007).
The effect of phospholipid formulation and choice of surfactant on skin permeation ofselected hydrophilic drugs from elastic liposomes across human epidermal membranehas been studied. Sodium cholate and various concentrations of phosphatidylcholinewere used for the preparation of liposomes namely hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine90% (Phospholipon 90H), phosphatidylcholine 95% (Phospholipon 90G),phosphatidylcholine 78.6% (Phospholipon 80), and phosphatidylcholine 50% (PhosalPG). To investigate the effect of the surfactant, liposomes were prepared from 95%phosphatidylcholine (Phospholipon 90G) and various surfactants (sodium cholate,sodium deoxycholate, Span 20 (sorbitan monolaurate), Span 40 (sorbitanmonopalmitate), Span 60 (sorbitan stearate) and Span 80 (sorbitan monooleate)). Thevesicles were prepared by the conventional rotary evaporation technique. The film was
hydrated with phosphate-buffered saline (10 mL) containing 9, 2 and 2.5 mg mL-1 ofmethotrexate, idoxuridine and aciclovir, respectively. All formulations contained 7%ethanol. Homogenously-sized liposomes were produced following extrusion through100-nm polycarbonate filters using Lipex Extruder. Particle size was characterized bytransmission electron microscopy. Vertical Franz diffusion cells were used for the studyof drug delivery through human epidermal membrane. For the three drugs, the highesttranscutaneous fluxes were from elastic liposomes containing 95% phosphatidylcholine.
In general, a higher flux value was obtained for liposomes containing sodium cholatecompared with sodium deoxycholate. For the liposomes containing sorbitanmonoesters, there was no clearly defined trend between alkyl chain length and fluxvalues. Overall, transcutaneous fluxes of liposomal preparations of hydrophilic drugswere comparable with those from saturated aqueous solutions (P > 0.05).
Sorbitan monolaurate; Sorbitan monopalmitate; Sorbitan monostearate; Sorbitanmonooleate; Lecithin; Acyclovir
Curative effect of soybean lecithin on cerebral infarction; Shi, F; Zhou, J; Meng,D, (journal) Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 81:1301-1303 (2001).
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical curative effect of soybean lecithin on cerebralinfarction. METHODS: 542 patients with cerebral infarction within 48 h after the onsetwith the nervous function defect scores of 31-35 were divided into 3 groups: basictreatment group, 60 cases, with conventional treatment; citicoline group, 122 patients,with conventional treatment and citicoline; and soybean lecithin group, 360 patients,with conventional treatment and soybean lecithin 10 g tid. For all patients, treatment
began sometime within 48 hours after the onset. The treatment course lasted 28 days.
RESULTS: When the course was over, the infarct volumes in basic group citicoline
group, and soybean lecithin group, were 7.6 cm3 ± 2.9 cm3, 7.3 cm3 ± 3.1 cm3, and
6.4 cm3 ± 2.7 cm3, respectively (F = 7.371, P = 0.0007). The basic group and citicolinegroup being compared with the soybean group by Dunnett test, t = 4.387 and 3.969respectively, P < 0.01. The nervous function defect integral in the three groupsdecreased 14.2 ± 10.93, 15.0 ± 9.0, and 18.5 ±10.9, respectively. Two-way analysis ofvariance of drug kind and beginning time of treatment showed the value of F in drugsas 6.250, P = 0.0021, and value of F in times as 0.9417, P = 0.4201. In the order ofdeath, deterioration, nonimprovement, improvement, significant improvement, andrecovery, the ridit values for the comprehensive curative effect in the 3 groups were
0.4003, 0.4118, and 0.54 5 respectively; χ2 = 27.89, P < 0.001. CONCLUSION:Soybean lecithin is effective in treatment of acute cerebral infarction. The mechanismmay be that soybean lecithin lowers the decrease of brain phospholipid content in brainischemia.
Study of liposomes stability containing soy phosphatidyletholine andhydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine adding or not cholesterol by turbiditymethod, Chorilli, M.; de Rimerio, T.C.; Oliveira, A.G.; Scarpa, M.V., Latin AmericanJournal of Pharmacy 26: 31 - 37 (2007).
Liposomes are structures composed by phospholipids as soy phosphatidylcholine (PC)and hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine (PCH). Among the methods used to proveliposomes' stability, turbidity method is widely used. The objective of this work was tostudy the stability of liposomes containing PC or PCH with and without cholesterol(CHOL) by turbidity method. Liposomes were stored a 30°C during 90 days andperiodically absorbance readings at 410 nm were made to verify possible turbidityalterations. Increases in the turbidity with time occurred for PC liposomes. In thepresence of CHOL higher turbidity was obtained probably reflecting the increase in thesize of liposomes. For PCH liposomes the presence of CHOL did not affect the turbiditysuggesting higher physical stability of the structures.
AOCS, 2710 S. Boulder, Urbana, IL 61802-6996 USA
Brief History Mr J S was truly at his wits end. At 64, the ageing process had been far from beautiful and the years sat on him more like the proverbial Sword of Damoceles rather than an achievement of life. Eight years earlier, his coronary artery system had become disease afflicted. This resulted in a heart attack that severely curtailed his normal lifestyle. In order to remain physically
Internal Medicine Journal 2002; 32: 315–319Audit of the management of suspected giant cell arteritis in a large teaching hospitalN. DALBETH,1 N. LYNCH,1 L. McLEAN,2 F. McQUEEN1,2 and J. ZWI11 Auckland Healthcare and 2 Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand Abstract Results : The mean waiting time for biop