There are five kinds of diabetes medicine are available in Two to four injections are necessary for type 1 diabetes. tablet form: Sulfonylureas, Biguanides, Glitinides, Thia- Insulin and/or tablet treatment can be more suitable for zolidinediones and Alpha Glucosidase inhibitors. You type 2. Hypoglycaemia may occur in patients taking insulin should see your GP to discuss these further. or sulphonylurea tablets and if you feel this is coming on, try to confirm with a blood test or take some fast acting Drug Group
Drug Name
carbohydrate such as lucozade or glucose tablets. Sulfonylureas
Useful Links:
These work by stimulating the pancreas to Diamicron - Gliclaziderelease stored insulin therefore raising drugs and short, medium and long acting. Tolanese - Tolazamide Biguanides
We hope you found the guide useful and in-
formative and hope you get the best out of
may help with weight problems as It helps the body use insulin better as it slows the information to help with your condition.
down the absorption of glucose from the intestines. Leaflet designed by Alykhan Nurmohamed (BSc Hons)
Kirby Chemist, Graphic Designer / Dispensing Technician
These are a new class of tablets that have Starlix - Netaglinidebeen derived from sulfonylureas. They are taken immediately before means and Kirby Chemist
lower glucose by stimulating insulin re-lease.
53 High Street
better to insulin. They can only be used Middlesex
with either a Sulfonylureas or Metformin.
Alpha Glucosidase inhibitor
These work by interfering with the break- down of carbohydrates into sugar in your Please feel free to ask a member of our
pharmacy department if you require any
further information regarding any topics
Tel: 020 8977 5509
Diabetes occurs when you cannot make enough insulin Fax: 020 8943 0733
or when the insulin produced, it is not at an adequate Web:
level of controlling blood glucose. The main symptoms are weight loss, passing more urine, thirst and feeling run down and some of the causes can be inherited, infec-tions, environmental factors and stress and can be diag-nosed from a blood or urine test.
Eat regularly, include starchy and high fibre food, reduce Last revised March 2007
Nurmo3 Productions

salt, fat and sugar intake and exercise regularly. KIRBY CHEMIST
It is the only hormone that can reduce blood glucose and Diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to auto- By increasing the amount stored in the liver in the form of Physical Activity: Regular physical activity helps your
matically regulate blood glucose levels, resulting in too body lower blood glucose levels, promotes weight loss, By preventing the liver from releasing too much glucose reduces stress and enhances overall fitness.
Glucose comes from foods that contain carbohydrate By encouraging cells elsewhere in the body to take up Nutrition: What when and how much you eat plays an
(starches and sugars); for example, breads and cereals, important role in regulating blood glucose levels. Eat milk and dairy foods, fruits and some vegetables. Glucose regularly and include starchy food, limit sugars and fat.
Insulin is the only way the body has of lowering blood glu- travels in the blood stream to the muscles and other or- Weight Management: Maintaining a healthy weight is
cose so when insulin supply fails, the body goes out of bal- gans where it is used as fuel. Excess glucose is detoured especially important in management of type 2 diabetes.
ance. After meals, there is no break on the glucose ab- to the liver where it is stored for future use. Glucose is the Lifestyle Management: Reduce stress levels in day-to-
sorbed from what you’ve eaten so the level in your blood body’s preferred source of energy and our bodies need it day life can help people with diabetes better manage continues to rise. As this occurs, the glucose starts to spill to work efficiently. The cause of Diabetes is a deficiency of out of the bloodstream into the urine. When the urine is the hormone insulin. Insulin is a chemical messenger Medication: Type 1 diabetes is always treated with in-
sweet due to glucose, germs can grow more rapidly leading made in the pancreas and is released into the bloodstream sulin (see table below). Type 2 diabetes is managed to infections such as cystitis and thrush. to have an effect on more distant parts. There are two through physical activity and meal planning and may require medications and/or insulin to assist your body in Type 1 (insulin dependant)
making or using insulin more effectively.
This is when the pancreas stops producing insulin and it is Blood Pressure: High BP can lead to eye, kidney and
Early stages of diabetes have few symptoms, but you may most commonly found in younger people who then require heart disease, and strokes so if you have diabetes you be at risk if: You're older than 45 years of age; You're over- should try to maintain a BP level at about 120/80.
weight; You don't exercise regularly; Your parent, brother Type 2 (non-insulin dependant)
or sister has diabetes; You gave birth to a baby that Types of Insulin
This is more common in middle or later life and can be weighed more than 9 pounds or you had gestational diabe- controlled by tablets or by changing diet and this is when Insulin type / action and
Brand name
Dosing schedule
tes while you were pregnant; You're African American, His- the body does not respond properly to insulin.
(Generic name)
panic American/Latino, Native American, Asian American There is also a third type of diabetes, Gestational Diabe-
Rapid-acting analogue
tes, which is a temporary condition that occurs during
pregnancy (may start at 24th - 28th week). It affects ap- Some of the short term symptoms or signs of diabetes are: proximately 4 % of pregnancies and involves an increased risk of developing diabetes for both mother and child Short-acting (Clear)
There are several factors including genetic or inherited Intermediate-acting
disposition, infections environmental factors or stress and any of these may be significant in each individual case. Tingling or numbness in the hands or feet We have briefly mentioned the cause of diabetes, but in more detail, the glucose in your blood comes from the di- Extended Long-acting
gestion of food and the chemical changes made to it by Without proper diagnosis and treatment, long term effects analogue (Clear & Colour- (insulin glargine)
the liver. We have established some glucose is stored and some is used for energy. Insulin has a unique shape that fits into special receptors on the surface of cells through- out the body. By plugging into these receptors, insulin makes cells extract glucose from the blood and prevents Premixed (Cloudy)
them from breaking down proteins and fat.


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